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The Moderating Effect of IT Capability on the Relationship between Business Process Reengineering Factors and Organizational Performance of Banks

Kabiru Jinjiri Ringim1, Mohd Rizal Razalli2,Norlena Hasnan3
  1. College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Postal Address: School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author's Personal/Organizational Website: www.cob.uum.edu.my Email: [email protected] Kabiru Jinjiri Ringim is a Ph.D. candidate in Operations Management at the School of Technology Management and Logistics; College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia. His areas of interests are Project Management, Process Reengineering, Performance Management, Operations Management, e-Commerce and Technology Management
  2. Director MBA Programme and Senior Lecturer, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Postal Address: School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia Author's Personal/Organizational Website: www.cob.uum.edu.my Email: [email protected] Dr. Mohd Rizal Razalli is a Director of MBA Programme at Othman Yeap Abdullah Postgraduate and Senior Lecturer at the College of Business, University Utara Malaysia. (UUM). He holds a PhD in Operations Management. He is actively involved in Conferences and publication to journal. His area of expertise is on Operations Management, Project Management, Business Process Reengineering, and Performance Management
  3. Senior Lecturer, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Postal Address: School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia Author's Personal/Organizational Website: www.cob.uum.edu.my Email: [email protected] Dr. Norlena Hasnan is a Senior Lecturer at the College of Business, University Utara Malaysia (UUM). She holds a PhD in Management, actively involved in conferences and publication to journal. Her area of expertise is on Performance Management, Project Management, Balance scorecard, and management sciences
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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of IT capability in the relationship of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) factors and the organizational performance. BPR factors are operationalized by change management, BPR strategy alignment, customer focus, management commitment, IT investment, and adequate financial resources. The IT capability includes IT knowledge, IT operations and IT objects. Data was collected through a hand-delivery method by sending questionnaires to 560 banks (Commercial, Microfinance and Mortgage). This study used stratified random samplings proportionate to the numbers of the banks for sample selection. The findings showed that IT capability moderated the relationship between BPR factors such as change management, customer focus, management commitment and overall organizational performance of the bank. Furthermore, the result revealed that IT capability moderated the relationship between IT investment, management commitment and customer service management performance. The outcome of this study provides important insight to researchers for understanding on the effects of BPR factors and IT capability on organizational performance.

 

Keywords

Business process reengineering, Information technology capability, Organizational performance, Banks, Nigeria.

INTRODUCTION

The progressive globalization of financial markets requires market participants to make changes to their operational processes beyond local competition to global competitiveness. This trend has led many banks in developing countries to improve customer service quality, speed, reduce operating costs, and enhance profitability performance. Innovative banking services and personalized banking portfolio management are evolving as the market consolidates due to mergers and acquisitions of banks and up-to-date strategy. As a result, the focus is no longer on cutting costs alone, but rather on simultaneously improving services to customers. In other words, the processes must not only be more efficient, but also more customer-friendly as well. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) initiated a BPR programme tagged project EAGLES (Efficiency, Accountability, Goal orientations, Leadership Effectiveness and Staff motivation) to enhance the operations and quality of banks assets and services (CBN, 2009).
The CBN in partnership with PricewaterhouseCoopers conducted a comprehensive assessment of the bank's core and non-core operations that required fundamental restructuring. The identified areas were customer service delivery, regulatory function of the CBN, performance management & benchmarking, information technology, customer satisfaction, human resources and administration and communication effectiveness at all stakeholder levels (CBN, 2009). In doing so, attempts are being made to adopt approaches in the financial sector that have proven effective in other industries, particularly those in manufacturing. One of these approaches is known as Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is a major management approach that can focus on doing things in a better way that is clearer and easier to achieve a radical improvement on quality, speed, customer service, and reduction in cost. Allen (1994) argued that, the focus of reengineering is on the process of redesign, which relates to doing things better and clearer. One of the primary goals of the financial service industry is to always enhance processes that would improve customer service performance through the management approach of cost reduction, improving quality, speed, and customer service for profit maximization. Therefore, management scholars argue that organizations can become proactive in operation by adopting business process reengineering (BPR) to achieve a remarkable improvement in organisational performance
In Nigeria, liberalization of the banking sector has changed the form of competitive advantage for the industry. New generation banks emerged. The old generation banks consolidate operations either by merger, acquisition, raised up capitalization based and reengineer their operations in order to be able to improve their performance and compete effectively. The consequences of merger and consolidation of operational process and an intensified foreign competition in the financial service industry through liberalization and globalization faced by the organizations led to radical changes in operations, and services that resulted in conflicting performance. Customer focus became a key factor in determining the success of an organization (Idris, 2011). The bank that has the highest customer base and highest customer focus rate became the market leader in the industry. Hence, the quality of customer service becomes a driving force in ascertaining business survival in the banking industry. To survive and excel in dynamic business environment became a concern for the banks performance.
The dynamic capability in form of IT capability was introduced to address the theoretical limitation of having sustainable performance in turbulent business environment (Paulous, 2004). Also, complementarity theory was mentioned to address the inadequacy of sustaining competitive advantage (Dedrick, Gurbaxani, & Kraemer, 2003; Kohli & Devaraj, 2003; Melville et al., 2004). This paper is aimed to study the moderating effect of IT capability attributes to the relationship between BPR factors and organisational performance of Nigerian banks using survey questionnaires.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Assessment of bank performance is essential for bank managers, regulators and customer (depositors and investors). In a turbulent financial environment, bank performance provides information for the investors and depositors to either retain or withdraw their investment from the bank. Managers are constantly challenged to improve their deposit or loan activities in order to enhance the profitability performance of their organization. Tvorik and McGivern (1997) investigated performance by comparing economic and organizational factors. They concluded that organisational factors influenced the profitability more than that of the economic factors. The performance of organizations could be assessed by resource-based view, as explored by a number of researchers (Wernerfelt, 1984; Barney, 1986; Prahalad & Hamel, 1990). Organizational performance could be linked with market orientation, organization learning, human resource productivity, quality improvement or any other component (Day, 1994; Banker & Sinkula, 1999; Santos-Vijande et al., 2005).

Organisational Performance

Organizational performance reflects an organization's understanding and knowledge regarding customer needs and expectations (Slater & Narver, 1995). Razalli, (2008) found that hotel performance could be improved through good leadership practice and provision of customized service design for select clientele in the service sector. Hence, business organization can maximize their customer satisfaction for better profitability, increased sales volume, which ultimately improves overall performance benefit (Baker & Sinkula 1999). Generally, organizational performance is assessed by the application of financial or both financial and non-financial measures. There are number of studies in the literature that used non-financial measures to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of organization (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Venkatraman & Ramanujam, 1986). It is suggested that four models i.e. human relations; internal process; open system and rationale goal model could represent the organizational performance (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Wheelen and Hunger (1998) argued that appropriate performance measures depend on the organizations and their objectives i.e. profitability, market share and cost reduction.
Financial indicators, such as return on investment (ROI), earnings per share (EPS) and return on equity (ROE) are used by the number of organizations to measure their progress. Return on investment is used to reflect the profitability while corporate performance was measured by operating cash flows and return on investment capital (Hasnan, 2006; Sorenson, 2002).Rashid et al., (2003) measured firm's financial performance using the financial indicators, such as return on assets, return on investments and current ratios. Financial ratios reflect the financial performance of the organization by an examination of financial statements, as indicated by profitability, liquidity, leverage, asset utilization and growth ratios (Ho & Wu, 2006). In today's global dynamic and competitive environment, banks could improve and diversify their products and services to meet changing customers' demands and enhance their performance for successful survival.
Farooq, (2003) reported that the performance of privately owned banks is better than that of state-owned banks. Hence, more customers were attracted by the high-quality service, adequate capital base and sound management of private banks. Also, Chowdhury and Kashfia, (2009) reported that analysis of the growth and development achieved of selected private banks in terms of stable growth of branches, employees, deposit, loans and advances, net income, earnings per share are better compared to the state owned banks. In addition, Calomiris (1999) argued that the merger and consolidation of bank operations results in the improvement of efficiency that is associated with operating cost reduction and enlargement of bank customer relationships. Adolphus (2007) examined the financial indicators in Nigerian banks. He found that the capital adequacy ratio significantly correlates negatively with bank solvency. The cash reserve ratio correlates negatively and significantly with the proportion of non-performing loans. The total loans to deposits correlate negatively significant with bank solvency.

BPR Factors

The literature review on BPR studies shows that the opinion of scholars on the subject matter can be classified into two (Herzog, Polajnar, & Tonchia, 2007). The first group includes the scholars that agree that BPR is a panacea to turbulent market changes, customer demand and competition (Davenport & Short, 1990; Hammer, 1990, Terziovski, Fitzpatrick, & O’Neill, 2003), while the second group holds the opposing view claiming that BPR has failed to meet its expectations (Mumford, 1995; Biazzo, 2002). According to Al-Mashari, Irani and Zairi (2001) the average success rate achievement of implementing BPR in developed countries was 55 percent, being 61 percent achieved in the USA and 49 percent in Europe. The majority of studies on BPR have focused on the importance of the various factors for successful implementation in the manufacturing industry, while relatively few studies have been conducted in the banking industry. Therefore, it is risky to generalize the BPR success rate, because the evaluation is subjective as cross national differences (such as cultural belief, norms and values) may exist. Reengineering is a painful process because the whole set of values and beliefs in the organization are being challenged (Hammer &Champy 1993). BPR factors in the present study have been adapted based on the scope of study and fit to the banking industry, which is in line with the previous studies (Al-Mashari & Zairi, 1999; Ahmad et al., 2007; Salimifard, et al., 2010). BPR factors are the independent variables, which includes 1) Change Management, 2) Management Commitment, 3) Less bureaucratic and flatter organizational structure, 4) Project Management, 5) Customer Focus, 6) Effective process redesign, 7) Adequate financial resources, and 8) Information technology (IT) infrastructure.

IT Capability

The review of previous studies that focus on a direct relationship between IT and organizational performance fail to consider capabilities, that are improved by IT and which are true facilitators of performance improvement (Tippins & Sohi, 2003). Other studies have relied on the erroneous assumption that adoption of IT would improve performance (Dewett & Jones, 2001). While IT can improve efficiency, it may not provide competitive advantage, because the same technology could be adopted by competing organizations. Therefore, Tippins and Sohi (2003) proposed that IT related benefit can only be realized when the organization develops IT competency and then uses it as a set of co-specialized resources to leverage other complementary resources. Yongmei, Hongjian and Junhua (2008) suggested that IT capability is an important moderating variable linking IT investments to firm performance. The model and hypotheses are verified by sample data from leading IT firms in China. Similarly, Said, Hui, Taylor and Othman (2009) found that IT capability moderates the relationship between customer-focused strategies and organizational performance by providing a justification for LGA’s to invest in terms of resources and commitment, in adopting CF-strategies and IT.

Theoretical Approaches

There are number of theoretical approaches for examining firm resources and business values. The principal theories are transaction cost economics (Williamson 1971, 1981, 1986), the resource based view (Wernerfelt 1984; Barney 1986, 1991; Deirickx and Cool 1989) and the relational view of firm (Dyer & Singh, 1998) of the firm. In addition the concepts of dynamic capabilities (Teece and Pisano 1994; Teece et al. 1997), absorptive capacity (Cohen and Levinthal 1990), complementary (Teece 1986) and strategic assets (Amit and Schoemaker 1993), and value chain analysis (Porter 1985). RBV asserts that organizations can outperform their competitors through developing resources that are unique and diversely distributed. These differences lead to variations in firm performance among firms in similar industries (Peteraf, 1993). However, the RBV is void of a single definition of the term resource (Wade &Hulland, 2004). Many researchers use the terms resources and capabilities interchangeably (Christensen & Overdorf, 2000; Gold et al., 2001).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research setting was a cross-sectional study design. It involves gathering the data only once or at one point in time to meet the research objectives (Cavana, Dalahaye, & Sekaran, 2001). The advantage of using a cross-sectional study is that it is economical and does not take time like a longitudinal study. The majority of the previous studies on BPR used case study descriptive research design (O’Neil & Sohal, 1999). The data from this study was collected from senior management, executives, managers and head of departments that represent the respective banks in Nigeria. In this study, attempts were made to increase the response rate such as by reminding the respondents through telephone call, SMS and self-visit (Sekaran, 2006). As a result of this efforts, 460 questionnaires responded by the banks were returned out of the 560 questionnaires distributed by hand delivery to the respondent banks (commercial, microfinance and mortgage) in Nigeria. This makes the response rate of 82.14% based on the definition of response rate (Jobber, 1989). Out of these 460 responses collected, 417 questionnaires were useable for further analysis making a valid response rate of 74.0%. This response rate is considered adequate considering that, according to Sekaran, (2006) the response rate of 30% is acceptable for surveys.

RELIABILITY TESTING

All variable's measures were tested for validity and reliability. Inter- correlation analysis was conducted and the results for the test were significant. The reliability test for each dimension emerged after factor analysis was conducted. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is widely used as a measure of reliability. Table 1 shows the results of the reliability test. Flynn, Schroeder, and Sakakibara (1994) argued that a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.6 and above was considered an effective reliability for judging a scale. The generally agreed lower limit for Cronbach’s alpha may decrease to 0.60 in exploratory research (Hair et al., 2010). A research instrument can be considered to be reliable if the result of the study can be replicable under a similar methodology with stability of measurement over time (Golafshani, 2003). Therefore, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the research instruments are shown in Table 1.

MODERATED REGRESSION

Hierarchical regression or moderator regression has been suggested by many authors as the technique for analysing the moderating effect (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Frazier et al., 2004). Russ and McNeilly (1995) argued that a less stringent significance level of p<0.25 should be used to resolve the lack of power in detecting the effect of the moderator. In this study, three levels of significance (1%, 5% and 10%) were used to detect the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between BPR factors and organizational performance. To test the moderator effect a three (3) step hierarchical was conducted to determine what proportion to the variance in a particular variable is explained by other variables when these variables are entered into the regression analysis in a certain order (Cramer, 2003).

Hypothesis testing of IT capability attributes - BPR factors - Organisational performance

To test the extent of IT capability attributes that moderates the relationship between BPR factors and overall organisational performance, a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted. The BPR factors were first entered into the step 1, followed by the moderator (IT capability) into step 2, and the interaction terms in step 3 of the regression model. It was the hypothesis that IT capability moderates the relationship between BPR factors and overall performance. Table 2 indicates the result of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis of the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between BPR factors and overall performance. BPR factors were entered first in step 1, explaining 15.4% of the variance. After the entry of IT capability at step 2 the total variance explained by the model as a whole was 19.7%. In step 3, the interaction terms were entered, which resulted in additional variance explaining up to 22.8%. The Sig. F change from step 1 to 2 at the 1% significance level and from step 2 to 3 was significant at the 5% level. However, inspection of the individual interaction terms between IT capability x management commitment (β=.225, t=2.646, p=.008); IT capability x customer focus (β=-.094, t=-1.886, p=.060) and IT capability x change management (β=-.090, t=-1.735, p=.084) indicates that management commitment was significant at 1%, customer focus and change management were significant at 10%, level respectively. IT capability moderates the relationship between the BPR factor (customer focus, management commitment and change management) and overall performance. Whilst, hypotheses HA 3A- 1, 3 and 4 are supported, hypotheses HA 3A – 2, 5 and 6 are rejected. The summary of hypothesis testing on the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between BPR factors and organisational performance is demonstrated in Table 2.

Hypothesis testing of IT capability attributes - BPR factors – Customer service management performance

To test the extent of IT capability attributes that moderates the relationship between BPR factors and customer service management performance, a hierarchical multiple regression was conducted. The BPR factors were first entered into the step 1, followed by the moderator (IT capability) into step 2, and the interaction terms in step 3 of the regression model. Table 3 shows the result of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis of the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between BPR factors and customer service management performance. BPR factors were entered first in step 1, explaining 21.3% of the variance. After the entry of IT capability at step 2 the total variance explained by the model as a whole was 24.7%. In step 3, the interaction terms were entered, which resulted in additional variance explaining up to 26.5%. The Sig. F change from step 1 to 2 was significant at the 1% level; however, the F change was not significant from step 2 to 3. However, upon scanning of the beta coefficient for individual interaction terms between IT capability x IT Investment (β=-.168, t=-1.989, p=.047) and IT capability x management commitment (β=.190, t=2.288, p=.023) both at the 5% significant level. This suggests that IT capability moderates the relationship between BPR factors (IT investment, Management commitment) and customer service management performance. Whilst, hypotheses HA 3C – 3 and 4 supported, hypotheses HA 3C – 1, 2, 5 and 6 are rejected. The summary of hypothesis testing on the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between BPR factors and customer service management performance is shown in Table 3.

DISCUSSION ON FINDINGS

This study found that IT capability moderates three (3) BPR factors, i.e., 1) change management, 2) management commitment, and 3) customer focus. This finding indicates that management commitment has both a direct and indirect significant effect on the overall performance of banks. The indirect effect is via IT capability. This finding also entails that banks that have excellent management competence would have a strong IT capability that would lead to a higher level of performance. The prior studies by Shao, Feng, Choudrie, and Liu (2010) have suggested that the interaction between the chief information officer competence and top management team moderate the relationship between IT investment and organizational performance. This also explains the experience of the IT productivity paradox based on the resource-based based view and knowledge-based view. Empirical research shows that the CIO’s strategic IT knowledge and business knowledge, as well as the interaction with top management team members, has a significant influence on the distribution and integration of IT within the organization (Armstrong & Sambamurthy, 1999; Smaltz & Sambamurthy, 2006). The issues of IT knowledge or CIO’s competence are new.
Previous research mainly focused on the direct association for IT knowledge of the CIO’s on organizational performance.
In a similar way, the moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between customer focus and overall performance support the literature, which suggested that IT capability in combination with customer focus strategies enhance an organization’s ability to rapidly develop and deploy more innovative customer-focused focused techniques or processes to enhance performance (Clark, Cavanaugh, Brown & Sambamurthy, 1997). An empirical study by Said, Hui, Taylor and Othman (2009) also reported that a high level of IT capability enables organizations to perform services with greater speed, more accuracy and more convenient ways for customers. This finding is consistent with the argument put forward by Barney, Wright, and Ketchen (2001) who suggest that the synergy between two or more resources will create a sustainable competitive advantage
The moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between change management and overall performance was in line with study conducted by Ahmed, Zbib, Arokiasamy, Ramayah and Chiun, (2006) findings that reported, resistance to change was negatively related to achievement of predetermined goals and user satisfaction. Furthermore, a change management initiative was found to moderate the relationship between resistance and user satisfaction. When Change management is high, it means that the users are not very happy with the changes imposed on them. This in turn will lead to lower performance. This indicates that managing the change effectively by acknowledging resistance as natural and expected, giving importance to employees concern, having regular and open communication, get everyone's participation, and promote skills and development are some of the ways to lower the organizational resistance. Employees are not really resisting the change, but rather they may be resisting the loss of jobs, loss of pay, or loss of comfort.
However, this study does not find any statistical evidence that IT capability moderates the relationship between project management and overall performance or its dimensions. The most plausible explanation may be due to the weak and insignificant value of the inter-correlation between the variable and IT capability. Another justification for the insignificant results between BPR strategy alignment and overall performance or other dimensions of performance may be related to the lack of connectivity between strategy and BPR project as one of the reasons for failures in the organization (Bandara et al., 2007). The non-significant relationship between BPR strategy alignment and performance might be due to the implementation of BPR by the organization as a quick fix, i.e., for reactive purposes not as a proactive initiative (Terziovski et al., (2003). BPR factors- IT capability-– customer service management, cost reduction and business operations efficiency performance.
The moderating effect of IT capability on the relationship between IT investment, and management commitment on the three dimensions of performance variables (cost reduction, business operation's efficiency and customer service management) is consistent with previous literature, which suggested that IT payoff and RBV literature provides a theoretical rationale for how IT capability moderates the relationship between IT investment and firm performance (Yongmei, Hongjian, & Junhua, 2008). The IT productivity paradox is explained by the revised model, with IT investment affecting firm performance indirectly through IT infrastructure. To some extent, the influence that IT investment has on human-IT resources and IT-enabled intangibles also affects firm performance, however, these relationships are moderated by the IT capability, implying that no matter how much a firm spends on IT, enhanced performance will not occur without advancing IT capability
The overall findings from the study prove that links between IT capabilities on the relationship between BPR factors and organizational performance have been established in the study. This linkage provides a new empirical contribution to academic knowledge and practitioners. The challenge for academia is to carry out more research on multi-disciplines to establish the links for the benefit of the industry and society as a whole. As for practitioners, in the search for organizational excellence, organizations should not be dependent on a particular management technique, but rather, multi management techniques are essential for organizational survival and success. The following section discusses the implications of the study.

IMPLICATION OF THE STUDY

In summary, this study provides evidence that IT capability plays a critical role in moderating the relationship between BPR factors and organizational performance. This finding provides support for the resource-based view of the firm, which highlights the importance of intangible resources (management commitment, customer focus, change management and IT investment) and capability (IT capability) in explaining organizational performance. Furthermore, this study not only provides evidence of a significant relationship of BPR factors and performance, but it also provides relationship between BPR factors and dimensions of organizational performance.

LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY

This study is subject to several shortcomings that limit interpretation of the findings. One of the limitations in this research is the common method variance (CMV) is a potential problem in behavioural research (Podsakoff et al., 2003). This study adopts Harman’s (1967) single factor analysis to test the common method bias and the design approach to instrument development to reduce common method bias. Future research may collect data from different sources.
In addition the study used subjective self-reported perceptual measures in assessing the studies. Even though an attempt was made to identify the best respondents by contacting the key personnel that provide the best information, the accuracy of self-perception might be strongly influenced by the respondent’s experience in the management of the organizations and frame of reference at the point in time. For instance, perceived biasness may occur if a person with a high reputation strongly believes that their management practices are more advanced compared to other organizations.

DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The sample from the study is limited to Nigerian banks. Future research should consider replicating this study in other cultures or countries especially on the moderating effect of IT capability dimensions. In addition, further research is also, needed to be conducted in other sector or industry besides banking such as manufacturing, or construction sector. This research would help to generalize the findings of this study in a broader context. Alternatively, a cross-cultural comparative analysis would further enhance the understanding of BPR and IT capability of different cultures.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

An attempt was made in the present study to investigate the link between BPR factors and IT capability and their effect on organizational performance. The results of the present study establish the important role of IT capability towards competitive advantage and organizational excellence. IT operations, IT objects and IT knowledge are the most important dimensions of IT capability attributes that contribute to higher organization performance. Stakeholders in the organization should recognize the important role that IT operations play in managing the organization. Putting in competent CIO leadership will provide the right culture for organizational excellence since IT has the necessary capabilities to drive strategic competitive advantage and performance. The role of IT capability is not only to coordinate but also to provide competitive advantage for organizational profitability performance and growth.
The overall findings from the study have proven that the relationship between BPR, IT capability on organizational performance have been established in the study. This study provides new empirical contribution to academic knowledge and practitioners. To the academia, more research on multi-disciplines need to be conducted to establish the relationship beneficial to the industry and society in general. To the practitioners, the search for organizational performance and competitive advantage should not be dependent on a particular management technique but multiple management initiatives, which are important for survival and success.

Tables at a glance

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Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

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