Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan Branch, Zahedan, Iran
Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan Branch, Zahedan, Iran
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The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout. In this regard, in this study a general hypothesis and three secondary hypotheses have been formed to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout and its dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization-individual inefficiency). All hypotheses approved and all of them are significant as -0.56, - 0.48, - 0.64, - 0.41- respectively which represents an indirect and linear relationship between these two variables. Whatever proper conditions exist in working places and management and responsible of organization make proper decisions in organizations and cooperation and integration between employees and management be in acceptable degree and salaries to be paid on time and also rewards and punishments considered perfectly, employees and managers encounter low burnout and eventually efficiency in organizations shall be increased.
Job Satisfaction; Burnout; Emotional Exhaustion; Depersonalization and Lack of Personal Performance
The rapid rate of technological developments, changes in consumption patterns, market needs and rising expectations of corporate social responsibilities in the field of competition is getting tighter. A condition of survival in such an environment is having the organization's competitive advantage. Objectives in the field of competitiveness, addressing the issues of safety, health and the environment have become a priority for organizations in today's business. Factors of competitiveness of organization are :
1. Regarding the manpower as the most important resources of the organization
2. Improving work processes in order to produce the operations
3. Attention to environmental issues for sustainable development.
The new perspective of "sustainable development" and obligation of companies to provide a safe and healthy working environment and operations, offering environmentally friendly products and services on one hand and on the other hand the development of industrial activities and increasing the associated risk and technological changes have realized the position of HSE in international companies in improving productivity level in country . The term burnout was first defined in 1974 by psychologist Herbert. He defined burnout as a psychological condition that includes symptoms such as physical fatigue, emotional fatigue and lack of motivation.
In simple terms, exhaustion is the lack of hope. In recent years, due to increased burnout. This increase may be due to increased knowledge about the negative effects of burnout on working people. Burnout has extra costs for organization and society such as long absence and lack of motivation in working and mental disorders and coronary disorders and hospitalization. In addition to preventing employee burnout, job satisfaction, morale and having goals are considered important . In fact, a person's satisfaction with the job and the emotional adjustment that includes both cognitive and behavioral components. Cognitive aspects, beliefs employees about the job and the behavioral aspects of a person's intention respect to job. Because the relationship with the person's attitude is more cognitive aspects of the credit is more than behavior.
Herzberg is one of the well-known theory-makers in job satisfaction who has presented motivation - Health theory. Growth factors or intrinsic motivation for the job are essentials and include achievement, recognition, the nature of the job, external factors such as policies and management, working conditions, pay and job security. But the extensive studies to understand better working conditions and subsequently satisfied and happy employees [4-6]. Emerged a key issue and it appears Burnout as a threatening factor against the job satisfaction [7-9].
Be capable of managing an organization, better able to meet its objectives, because it will benefit from the facilities and planning search. Effectiveness and efficiency depend on human and non-humane factors. However, human resources can be used as the center of all activities in the organization. The lack of adequate human resources and commitment make it difficult to achieve the objectives.
Therefore, in this study we decided to study the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout in HSE managers in order to remove barriers to employment and job factors damaging the managers.
Job satisfaction is the essential part of organizational psychology and due to its relation with human resources it has been considered perfectly [10,11]. Job satisfaction describes how people satisfy with their jobs.happy people about jobs are more satisfied with their jobs. Due to adverse consequences of job dissatisfaction on organizations, researches on job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction causes and consequences of job dissatisfaction have been increased in recent years. On the other hand the success of each organization depends on the efforts of employees and this will be realized if job satisfaction appears . Older models of job satisfaction focus on people's feel about their job satisfaction. But what determines people's satisfaction does not depend only on the job, but people's expectations of what their jobs are also determined .
Paul Spector, quoting Khanzadeh  job satisfaction as a set of feelings about the job is defined as evaluator. He has identified nine dimensions of job satisfaction:
1. Salary amount and management by supervisor
2. Opportunities of Promotionand justice and fairness in promotion
3. Impartiality in supervision and competence in performance.
4. Respect and appreciation
6. Policy action
7. Partners and their attractive
8. Enjoyable work 9. Relations
Job satisfaction is defined as positive and good situations about individual job and in fact it is determined as a concept related to expectations and needs and individual values about job also it means development of positive and good situations and feelings of employees and working conditions .
In Hapak's opinion job satisfaction has complex and multi-dimensional concept with psychological factors, physical and social relationship. Various factors such as income and social value of jobs, working conditions and employment at different products in different ways determine the job satisfaction .
One of the major issues of job that often reacts to job and organizational pressures are seen among employees' leads to burnout. This factor is decrease of compatibility of person with pressure factors which it produces negative view respect to work [16,17].
Burnout is a reaction to chronic work stress or organization and it is observed that the care workers suffering burnout easily . They spend their time and energy to help others, Thus, burnout not only jeopardizesthe health of millions of people in the service sectors, but also make responsible suffer from anxiety and stress. In today's society, there are number of burnout aspects in all of public life. On the one hand, increased drug abuse, divorce, job and physical and psychosomatic illnesses, and on the other hand, it reduced productive work and influenced on the economy and industry of the country. This phenomenon in all aspects put the society at risk .
May be a satisfactory job, over time, becomes a source of dissatisfaction and burnout. In advanced industrialized countries, the percentage of employees in each organization involved and have different side effects of severe burnout, in this regard, financial and human considerable damage to their families and their local organizations are observed. The magnitude and speed of scientific developments and techniques by which, provides the social and economic changes certainly. So in these circumstances, profound changes in people's lives and their employment come into existence. Todays, innovative organizations to achieve their goals and seek solutions to their employees in good agreement with such great changes. Considering human as a complex being, his compatibility with complex relationships, facilities, changes directions, and generally workplaces in an organization different from the past and in this time, in the process of social adaptation and career would have constraints and pressures to be endured. So a satisfactory job may be changes in to dissatisfaction source and this leads people toward burnout .
Maslach et al.  argue that research on burnout have been developed in two stages:
1) Primary stage: The nature of the work is studied and aims to create a so-called burnout and describe this phenomenon. The first articles in this case in the mid-1970s were written in the United States and description of this phenomenon began.
2) Experimental stage: in the 1980s to study experimental research on burnout was a regular shift.
Empirical Background of Research
A study conducted by Samuel : Job stress and burnout among the speakers: the personality and social support of moderators factors. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between job stress, social support, personality and burnout among teachers in ministry of education. The second goal was to evaluate how personality and social support can have negative effects of stress on burnout, respectively. The results showed that job stress, social support and personality dimensions predict burnout jointly and separately.
Personality characteristics and social support in dealing with stress predict personal success. The results show that environmental factors (stress and social support) and personal factors (personality traits) have an impact on job burnout.
-In research of Rod et al. (2009), entitled signs of burnout and improve service performance (effect of employment measures), which aims to develop previous researches, outcomes and events in the field of burnout and also the role of employment policy as a specific position to improve personal burnout. Sample of employees included call center clerks in the field of banking affairs in New Zealand, in this study, of 14 hypotheses, 8 hypotheses were accepted and showed that job measures have a significant role on job burnout and improve service performance.
-In the research of Tanakody et al. , entitled the effects of burnout and social support supervising on relationship between work and family conflicts and leave intention (the study of Australian workers suffer from cancer), information collected from 114 workers of Cancer Center were tested through path analysis and assumptions relating to the mediation of conflicts between work and family burnout and turnover intention, according to the mediator, supervisor social support was also outstanding.
-Scott and Nolan refer to the role of environmental factors in the development of burnout. In workplaces with the pressure from the repeated demands and requests of others, and intense competition, financial needs and trying to make money, deprivation of what a person is worthy of it, burnout appears.
Lindblom et al.  conducted a study in Sweden and found that between burnout and stress and anxiety there is a significant correlation. In this study, levels of burnout in the general population, regardless of occupation and the relationship between burnout and psychosocial factors have been studied. In this study sleep disorders, psychiatric disorders, burnout (Maslach Burnout) and psychosocial factors at work were studied. The study population was a random sample of 3,000 people aged 20-60 and questionnaires were emailed to them. 61% of people responded to questionnaires. High level (18%), low (19%) and moderate (63%) for burnout were considered and in a high-level group had more people: those 50 aged women, those who had experienced mental illness and those in poor working conditions psychologically. The analysis showed that psychological factors associated with burnout, regardless of the job are important.
-Reymond and his colleagues in 2006  in Canada conducted a study on 148 Canadian directors on a management model of burnout. The results of this study showed that emotional exhaustion has an important role in the creation of job burnout. The managers have been burnout through stress and fatigue. Job satisfaction and life satisfaction, time spent with customers and subordinates had also association with fatigue. The consequences of stresson burnout are also debatable.
- Preski et al.  found that the more difficult working conditions include more job burnout. They referred to factors such as feelings of lack of social support, more complaints in the fields of cognitive, emotional and physical items, and problems such as fatigue, sleep disorders and cognitive defects in burnout people (Table 1).
Table 1: General structure of research methodology.
|Research strategy||Survey-cross section|
|Data collection method||library|
The study population consisted of industry HSE executives in Karaj Special Road, which numbers 900 people. In this paper, using Cochran formula, 200 HSE managers have been selected.
In this study, a standard questionnaire was used. Job satisfaction questionnaire of Kendall and burnout questionnaire of Maslesh were used . Because both are standard questionnaires, their content validity have already been approved.
To check the reliability of the questionnaire by Cronbach's alpha coefficient that the amount stated in the Table 2:
Table 2: Cronbach's alpha.
|Amount of Cronbach's alpha||0.812||0.728|
The Main Hypothesis
There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and burnout (Figures 1-3).
Secondary Hypotheses of Research
1. The relationship between job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion is significant.
2. There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and depersonalization.
3. There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and personal performance.
Model in the Standard Estimation Mode
Model of Significance Coefficient
Model in the Standard Estimation Mode (Figure 4)
Model of Significance Coefficient (Figure 5)
The research findings and studying survey questions using structural equations
In this study, we prove the hypotheses. Two models are available, one of the main assumptions of the model and the model assumptions in the following sub-study in detail explained .
The following table shows indicators of model such as chi-square, RMSEA, GFI and…. If the amount of X2 be less than the degree of freedom (df) is less than 3, RMSEA would be less than 0.1, and GFI and AGFI are greater than 90%, it can be concluded that the model has a good fit (Table 3). The standard coefficient of this relationship when the value of tis greater than 1.96 or smaller than - 1.96 it would be significant at 99 percentage of reliability.
Table 3: Structural equations model of main and secondary hypotheses of research.
|Structural Equations Model of Hypotheses of Research|
|Test result||Significant coefficients||relation||Main hypothesis|
|Confirmed||5.39||- 0. 56|
|Indices of Main Hypothesis Model|
|0.000 8||0.000 1||119||124.36|
|0. 92||0. 92||0. 93||0. 92|
|Test result||Significant coefficients||Relation|
|confirmed||5.36||- 0. 48||Hypothesis 1|
|confirmed||8.41||- 0. 64||Hypothesis 2|
|confirmed||7.14||- 0. 41||Hypothesis 3|
|Indices of Secondary Hypotheses Model|
|0.00 25||0.00 14||120||148.22|
|0. 91||0. 91||0. 91||0. 93|
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout. In this regard, in this study a general hypothesis and three secondary hypotheses have been formed to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and burnout and its dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization-individual inefficiency). All hypotheses approved and all of them are significant as -0.56, -0.48, -0.64, -0.41 respectively which represents an indirect and linear relationship between these two variables.
It can be observed that whatever job satisfaction rate increases, job burnout decreases or with increasing a single unit in job satisfaction, job burnout shall be decreased as 0.56 units.
The first hypothesis proved to be a negative correlation between job satisfaction and burnout. Whatever proper conditions exist in working places and management and responsible of organization make proper decisions in organizations and cooperation and integration between employees and management be in acceptable degree and salaries to be paid on time and also rewards and punishments considered perfectly, employees and managers encounter low burnout and eventually efficiency in organizations shall be increased.
As well as assumptions regarding the detailed findings of this research have assumed that increasing job satisfaction decreases emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of efficiency. Also job satisfaction improves stable personality in working places and negative behaviors will be decreased in organizations show as well as the people in the organization will have more efficiency and effectiveness of the organization's goals and objectives will be in line with other employees and managers.
This research has been involved with place and temporal restrictions so it is suggested to other researchers to study in different places and time and compare their results with these findings.
Also it is suggested to managers to provide job satisfaction of employees regarding different dimensions in organizations to decrease burnout of managers and employees. So decreasing burnout improves productivity in organizations and the goal will be realized perfectly.