S. Seifulin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
JSC Financial Academy, Astana, Kazakhstan
S. Seifulin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
S. Seifulin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Kaspian University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
S. Seifulin Kazakh Agro Technical University, Astana, Kazakhstan
K. Zhubanova Aktobe Regional State University, Akrobe, Kazakhstan
Kyzylorda State University, Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan
Kazakh University of Technology and Business in Astana, Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakh University of Technology and Business in Astana, Astana, Kazakhstan
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Tourism today is an indicator of the development of civilization, by the knowledge of reality, a way of raising the cultural level and restore health. The development of tourism must be in the "green economy" that will increase the e employment potential, socioeconomic growth, preservation of natural, cultural and architectural heritage as well as the use of natural resources will be provided renewability and sustainability of consumption. The rapid implementation of successful countries have implemented e are new energy-saving technologies, will give to Kazakhstan rise to a new level, the full implement policies in the direction of the "Green Economy". Thus, the purpose of this article is to consider the advantages of "Green Economy” in tourism. To achieve this goal we used factor analysis of statistical data. The article also provides generalized national and international experience on the issues under consideration. The results showed that the transfer to a "green" economy would not only improve the environmental situation, but also fill the budget due to the rational use of natural resources. It will also create a favorable image for tourism and increase the number of tourists.
Ecological tourism, Green economy, New technologies, Renewable resources and Energy conservation
The impacts of climate change are undermining a whole range of human rights: rights to food, safe water and health and education. But it is also displacing people, which is very likely to cause not just human distress but potentially conflict. So for me it’s a very, very serious issue of human rights .
Several options could help maintain power system reliability. Today, grid operators rely on conventional generators that can be operated in a very short lead-time or that have very good inertia which allows them to absorb fluctuations in power supply or demand. However, they may also use load-shifting or other Smart Grid technologies to control demand and make it more flexible .
On the threshold of the twenty-first century, mankind is faced with the global problem of breach of social welfare, environmental and economic state as a whole. Accordingly, it is time effective solutions create problems through the transition to a "green economy". "Green Economy" - is an innovative global rate of the world economy, which involves real improvements in the environment for sustainable well-being. The development of "green economy" in our country will increase employment potential due to increased local employment and increase the use of local and tourist and recreational resources. At the "greening" of the tourism sector growth of involvement of the local community, especially the poor, in the value chain in tourism is an important factor in the development of the economy.
1. Assessment and focus on natural services at the national and international levels;
2. Offered employment by creating "green" jobs and appropriate policy development;
3. Market mechanisms for sustainable development. Transfer to "green" economy requires ten invested sectors of economy: agriculture, public utilities, energy, fishing, forestry, industry, tourism, transport, waste management, water management.
Renewable energy can play a significant role in addressing climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these issues are becoming more urgent, the government and the market looking for innovative solutions. Throughout the world, the question of the transition to an energy-efficient and renewable technology is not worth it, the foundation is in the shortest possible time and cost to implement the latest technologies and how to inform and educate the population to accelerate the transition to second-generation technologies. Many sectors of the economy are heavily dependent on natural resources, emerging in the course of ecological processes (Table 1).
Table 1: The dependence of global industries to ensure raw material in production of modern (A) and associated with the earth's geological past (B) ecological processes and resources of the biosphere (in %).
|S. No||Sectors of the economy||A||B|
|2.||Refining and ugleneftegazohimiya||-||100|
|3.||Building materials industry||10||55|
|4.||Forest products and paper industry||100||-|
|8.||Food and microbiological industry||100||-|
Availability of natural resource economics for a long time not seen as dependent on the laws of ecology. But with the growth of production and especially in the XX century, this relationship began to show more and bigger. Economic growth is determined by supply and demand stimulation intrusive secondary means of consumption, has led to the fact that under the threat turned out to be the natural basis of life-support and the ability to meet the basic needs of man. Along with demographic changes, and the paradigm shift of the economy - the image of its structure and operation, it is necessary transition to a new level of material culture that is compatible and balanced with the already impoverished natural potential of the planet .
Currently, only a small group of countries to introduce effective measures to promote the development of innovation, although in most countries, such as Kazakhstan and there are opportunities to improve policies and strategies, if adopted effective measures for their implementation, this potential would be realized much faster and to a greater extent.
It is necessary to build a system of strategies for the development of new technologies so as to be able to carry out research and development, and at the same time to market. Such simultaneous process should be possible to operate at different developmental stages and different markets.
The rapid growth of the needs of international and domestic travel causes the opportunity to travel a long distance in a short period of time. Most often, tourists prefer energy-intensive transports specializing in non-renewable energy sources. In resulting in 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Tourism represents a significant potential for the development of the world economy. 5% of global GDP nahoditsya precisely on this industry. Over the past decade Oia tourism has changed significantly, continuing to gain momentum. In world exports, international tourism ranks 4th after fuels, chemicals and automotive products. Travel and tourism - industries that require significant human resources, they are working 230 million. People or 8% of the world's labor force is estimated that one job in the core tourism industry creates about one and a half additional or indirect jobs in sectors related to tourism .
Following damage to the environment of nano sieves excessive water consumption, and Menno, tourism resets s of untreated water, waste, resulting in there is a substantial likelihood of threats preserves the natural, cultural and architectural heritage and traditions. Of particular relevance are environmentally friendly hydro, wind, biomass and solar power, geothermal energy (Figure 1). Tourism activity is directly related to the policy, the environment and the economy.
The popularity of wind power will grow.
Travel organizations should aim to minimize the negative impact on the environment. If possible, strives to make a positive contribution to the preservation bio-diversity wildlife, natural and human heritage. That is, the development of the path of "green tourism" to minimize impact on the environment (both physical and social environment), will create environmentally friendly leisure options, making responsible travel, saving money, making choices on energy-saving technologies with low impact on the environment.
Thus, the possibility of entering the economy on the path of stable growth is determined by the formation of a new technological order. Transition from one wavelength to another, from the point of view of the theory of long-term economic cycles, associated with the change of the technological mode of production, increasing productivity and efficiency of production spine. But, from the perspective of changes in the environment all the traversed path, each new wave, associated with an increase in environmental instability. Environmental instability manifested in the reduction of environmental quality, higher volumes and concentrations of hazardous waste components, volume growth Non-recycled waste, increase morbidity. Indicators of environmental degradation are the growth of the damage from pollution, the growth rates of environmental risk, increase security costs, increase willingness to pay for environmental resources, the rising cost of saving human life .
The main reason that encourages a critical review of existing approaches to economic theory, advocates a fundamental change in the role of environmental factors in economic development . The use of scientific concepts in practice, inadequate realities of society and the natural laws of its -Historical evolution, not only is fraught with decline in social and economic development, but also can lead to catastrophic consequences (Figure 2).
Over the past 20 years the international community to think seriously about environmental issues. Obvious examples are the UN Conference such as "Planet Earth" (Rio de Janeiro, June 14, 1992), as well as the UN Conference on Sustainable Development "Rio + 20" (Rio de Janeiro, June 20-22 2012) According to the UN, to go to the "green" economy in the world community must 2012-2050g.g. invest 2% of world GDP in ten key sectors: agriculture, housing and communal services, energy, fisheries, forestry, industry, tourism, transport, water management, recycling and waste management (Tourism investing in energy and resource efficiency. United Nations Environment Programme 2010) .
The use of renewable energy sources by type of fuel in the world is shown in Figure 2. It should be noted that the World Wildlife Fund in cooperation with Cleantech Group was ranked the countries where the conditions for business development with the use of environmentally friendly technologies most comfortable. The study “The Global Cleantech Innovation Index 2012" estimated 38 countries on 15 parameters, among which there were both economic and environmental innovations that will be introduced in the next decade. According to the report, the top four rankings occupied Denmark, Israel, Sweden and Finland. Today, these small countries are the source of the greatest number of innovations. According to Richard Youngman, Managing Director of Cleantech Group in Europe and Asia, growth companies with clean technologies every day will be an increasingly important part of countries' competitiveness in the global arena. Significant contributions to the development of green technology have made the Nordic countries and the United States. Asia Pacific leads in volume and profit growth companies working with eco-friendly technologies. United States ranked fifth, leaders in the number of new projects in the field of clean technologies, as well as the number of investors in this sector. China, received 13th place ranking, is a leader in the development of environmental technology and demonstrates the potential for innovation in the future. List ranking close the Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Russia. Last place in the ranking went to Russia because of the lack of development of environmental innovation and private sector-oriented environmental technology . Also according to the report, Russian experts say low level of control in this sphere by the government .
Possible future electricity generation from wind and other renewables, the 2020 ‘Gone Green’ scenario published by the Electricity Networks Strategy Group and Arup’s 2030 ‘High’ scenario .
The UK Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) statistics released in February 2014 show that the amount of electricity produced by wind grew 38% from 2012 to 2013. In total the amount of electricity generated by wind grew from 5.5% in 2012 to 7.7% in 2013.
Following on from the 2012 launch of the Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Taskforce report, the UK government and industry are working together through the Offshore Wind Programme Board. The UK’s offshore industry has signed up to a target of reducing costs by 30% by 2020, based on the delivery of 18 GW of offshore wind.
For the period to 2020, the most up-to-date analysis has been conducted by the Electricity Networks Strategy Group (ENSG, 2012), a team of network operators, utilities and other stakeholders reporting to the Department of Energy and Climate Change and Ofgem. In their ‘Gone Green’ scenario, they estimated that, to meet the 15 per cent renewable energy target, renewable electricity capacity should reach 35,600 MW, generating about 113 TWh by 2020 .
New markets continued to emerge in all regions, and, for the first time, Latin America represented a significant share of new installations. Offshore wind had a record year, with 1.6 GW added, almost all of it in the EU. However, the record level hides delays due to policy uncertainty and project cancellations or downsizing. The wind industry continued to be challenged by downward pressure on prices, increased competition among turbine manufacturers, competition with low-cost gas in some markets, reductions in policy support driven by economic austerity, and declines in key markets. At the same time, falling capital costs and technological advances increased capacity factors, improving the cost-competitiveness of wind-generated electricity relative to fossil fuels. The offshore industry continued to move farther from shore and into deeper waters, driving new foundation designs and requiring more-sophisticated vessels [9,12,13].
As you can see, Kazakhstan in the ranking of countries has not got. For the implementation of the "green" rate, as calculated by UNEP, will need about $ 750 billion. (Invest their plans in the next two years), which is about 1% of global GDP. This sum will create a critical mass of "green" infrastructure, sufficient for laying the foundation of a global "green" economy. It is an alternative to "pollute" the economy with its traditional dependence on inefficient non-renewable sources of energy, irrational use of material resources and a high degree of climate risk. Because environmental taxation is not only producers, but also buyers, the full realization of payment for environmental management in an open economy inevitably leads to increase the divergence between prices and purchasing power. Consequently, the displacement should occur from the market the environmental capacity of goods and services. This means these objectives can be achieved both through direct investment and through reform fiscal systems (tax breaks for "green" industries, a large tax burden on polluting sectors) and Architecture international politics (closer cooperation between developed and developing countries, inter-regional cooperation, support for developing and transition economies.
So, continuing in recent years economic growth in Kazakhstan is accompanied by accelerated exploitation of natural resources potential, reduction of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the regime of nature [13,14].
The reasons for transfer to “green economy” in the Republic of Kazakhstan :
1. Inefficient energy and land recourses use cost in Kazakhstan not less than 4-8 per cent of GDP in 2011 prices;
2. Kazakhstan national security is at risk due to expected reduction of trans boundary feeders under growing economies of neighboring states;
3. Further land and water depletion may lead to an imbalance in regional development, which primarily affect the poorest regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is already making the first step towards the development of "green economy" claiming to hold the exhibition "Expo-2017" on the topic "Energy of the Future", which would oblige to demonstrate and implement advances in the field of renewable energy, and benefits such as environmental friendliness, low operating costs and environmental friendliness.
May 30, 2013 the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 577, which tells the story of the concepts associated with the transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the "green economy" .
Implementation of the concept associated with the transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the "green economy" will be implemented in three stages:
– At this stage of the country's top priority will be to optimize the use of natural resources and improving environmental performance, as the formation of a "green" infrastructure;
– On the basis of an organized "green" infrastructure arise transformation of the national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan to promote the rational use of water resources, rewarding and promoting the development and widespread use of renewable energy technologies, as well as the construction of advanced technologies on the basis of high standards of energy efficiency;
– move the national economy to the new principles of the "third industrial revolution", which require the use of natural resources provided renewability and sustainability;
As you know, the airline of Kazakhstan is monopolized and therefore departure from the country is very expensive, but on the condition of growth of oil on the world market, the price of fuel will increase and cheap flights are unavailable, respectively no state has washed rely on foreign tourists. According to experts, in the future, will travel geo-local, that is, people will travel in the country or in the vicinity of homeland, preferring self-first mainland. This means that the development of domestic tourism in the future will bring the greatest economic growth in the country, to take all necessary efforts to develop "green" tourism today.
Analysis of the dynamics of the "green economy" is the basis of forecasting and planning of the economy and tourism in the country, and the methods used to detect and describe patterns of development of renewable technologies and tourism flows, the relationship dynamics and developmental factors. Thus the study of the development of "green" economy and its implementation in tourism, applied methods: groups, observations and statistics, factor analysis and comparison of having a positive experience of the use of renewable resources. As well as the study of documents from client statistics tourism enterprises, statistics of international companies have implemented innovative technologies in the construction and customer service, a detailed study of the structure of the tourist flow and written questionnaires.
To go to the "green economy" offers a wide range of methods and tools:
– Complies with the principles of sustainable development pricing, including the abandonment of inefficient subsidies, assessment of natural resources in terms of money and the imposition of taxes that harm the environment;
– Public procurement policies that encourage the production of environmentally friendly products and the use of appropriate principles of sustainable development of production methods;
– Reforming the system of "ecological" tax, involving a shift from tax on labor to taxes on pollution;
– An increase in public investment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development infrastructure (including public transport, renewable energy, energy efficiency in buildings) and natural capital to restore, maintain and, where possible, increase the volume of natural capital;
– Targeted public support for research and development related to the establishment of environmentally sound technologies;
– Social policies to ensure coordination between the objectives of social services and existing or proposed economic policies.
Conditions that promote the transition to a "green" economy, may pave the way for the success of public and private investment in the greening of business. An important task of the state is a radical change in the structure of investments in various types of capital and the creation of appropriate mechanisms for this purpose. Today misallocation of capital is considered as the fundamental problem of modern crises in the world.
The first key variable that drives the levelized cost of electricity for wind power is capital expenditure, which are the costs associated with acquiring or upgrading property and equipment .
Kazakhstan has significant potential development of industries based on renewable resources (Table 2).Table 2: Renewable resources the Kazakhstan .
|1.||Agriculture and agro-processing|
|3.||fisheries and the fishing industry|
|4.||Forestry and wood processing industry|
|5.||Energy industry on the basis of renewable biomass fuel (biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel)|
|8.||Solar power, geothermal energy.|
It is important to find a solution to the problem of planning permissible load on the environment and safe operation of tourist infrastructure "before" and "during construction", during the operation. Onsite need to install:
• Wind turbines for testing contractions and power for lighting and heating devices;
• Solar thermal device.
Social effect determines assistance in solving the problem of increasing the quality of life of the population of Kazakhstan: the regulation of unemployment, income levels, improving the provision of engineering and social infrastructure, improvement of sanitary and epidemiological situation, reducing ecological and demographic and other risks of territorial development. The information-analytical database and maps are useful for planning and managing organizations of national and regional levels. Economic impact: produce different-pronged and evidence-based evaluation, recommendation and planning materials for "green" tourism and the problems impeding its development. The development of "green" tourism as an environmentally safe and complexing industry ensure balanced use of all resources and ensures a high level of viability of the population .
World experience shows that environmentally oriented building construction can reduce the cost of energy and water resources by more than 30% for the whole period of operation of the object. Despite this, the design of buildings and transport infrastructure does not take into account potential benefits of using the principles of eco-efficiency. However, the cost of creating a sustainable infrastructure will improve the strategic competitiveness of the country as a whole, while preserving the environment, public health and natural mineral resources. This provision does not mean that Kazakhstan is far from solving the problems of spatial development of "green economy" of the country and its regions world-level developed countries .
One of the main trends of modern urban development is the design and construction of the so-called "smart cities" (smart cities), which can be determined by compliance with the essential parameters effectively connected together: the economy, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, as well as participation citizens in the management of cities and .
It is necessary to take stringent measures to move to the latest technology both firms and households, for example, to force use of LED lighting, that is, to use renewable technologies. Preferential taxation for all applied in the production and lifesaving and the latest technology. Since the experience of advanced countries showed that in the initial period cost Wausau Upgradeable sources is high, with time development of very rapidly generate lead to cheaper cost. Over the past ten years, the price of solar electricity has decreased tenfold. For wind energy decrease was not as significant, but still greater than for conventional technologies. After the end of the payback period of almost any object of renewable energy is a sharp decline in the rate due to the fact that investments have been returned, and no fuel costs .
In the tourist industry clients will prefer to relax in the hotel which does not harm the environment. Use efficiency increase if consumption will be assessed for each person individually, according to the meter readings for electricity, water and other similar resources. Showers and taps should be installed not wasteful, and economical. Those customers whose consumption is less than the average could receive discounts.
Currently, alternative energy exists only because it subsidizes, but it does not mean that it does not need to develop . The main obstacles to the introduction of innovations are administrative barriers, delays and limitations in planning, lack of coordination among different authorities, long waiting period for obtaining permits, as well as access to electricity, the structure of the electricity market, lack of information and training of new technologies and the failure of society.
Possibility pits and for technological breakthrough results are end modern educational programs for all levels of education Higher education in the areas of "green economy" refresher courses for managers at all levels.
The Republic of Korea has announced the first implementation of the concept of "green growth" as a national strategy. The focus of this strategy on three elements: industry, energy and investment. The strategy aims to preserve the scale of productive economic activities with minimal use of energy and other resources; to minimize pressure on the environment of all types of used energy and resources and the adoption of measures to make investments in environmental activities and the driving force of economic growth.
In the US, are spreading a company specializing in consulting in the field of energy efficiency. They monitor the power consumption and provide their clients with information about its spending, provide recommendations for more efficient use of .
Feed-in tariffs introduced in more than 30 developed countries and 17 developing countries. For example, in the group of countries with the highest level of efficiency incentive policies (in Germany, Spain, Denmark, Portugal and later) for the promotion of wind power feed-in tariffs were introduced. The success of these countries in the use of offshore wind energy due to the high investment stability, which ensures long-term feed-in tariffs, the appropriate infrastructure with a minimum of administrative and legislative obstacles in a developing country - Kenya there are feed-in tariffs, largely as preferential pricing, guarantee the payment of a fixed amount per unit electricity produced from renewable sources, or a premium to the market price for electricity. In 2008 were introduced feed-in tariffs for electricity generated using wind, biomass and small hydro power plants, and in 2010 and for electricity generated using geothermal, biogas and solar energy. This could lead to the creation in the coming years, new power capacity of 1,300 MW, or almost double the existing capacity for the production of electricity. Terms of feed-in tariffs, as well as any other form of support - a key factor in their success, and there are important duration of support, the gradual reduction of tariffs over time, and restrictions on the maximum or minimum production capacity .
In the United States for many years, solar systems used by federal tax benefits, but it was not enough, so in recent years produced about 80% of the proportional reduction, i.e. implemented an aggressive strategy for the promotion of photovoltaic, including tax breaks for home owners and commercial installations and systems mandatory quotas with the special reserve for solar energy. The payment system for electricity, where the excess electricity produced by the solar power system, go into the general grid and thus counter spinning in the opposite direction, profitable retail tariff structure and clear rules of engagement have also contributed to an increase in PV markets.
In some countries provided subsidies to companies that use clean energy or engaged in planting trees .
Although the sources of solar thermal energy present in sufficient quantity in all parts of the world, a significant step forward only a few countries have made. China is a manufacturer of almost half the solar thermal energy in the world and is now well on its way to the development of its realizable potential, together with Brazil and Austria. In China, the rapid growth of solar thermal energy can be attributed to low cost solar thermal energy in many regions of the country. Brazil does not have the production of solar thermal energy state support, but has a high level of solar radiation. At the same time, Austria has reached almost the same level of efficiency by relatively modest investments in grants, information dissemination and training programs. Sweden plans to abandon the oil, coal and gas and switch to energy from renewable sources by 2020. Brazil plans to transfer 80% of transport biofuels from sugar cane (Figure 3).
Biofuels will gradually replace oil in the world.
Another direction of the green economy - a global diet. To personally support the global eco-movement, Hon atochno lose weight. Fry populations need less food, and at the same time reducing transport emissions. Control of debris also becomes the task of the state level. A few years ago, China closed the largest factory, the production of plastic bags. He worked twenty thousand people. The Chinese have used up to three billion plastic bags every day. So the government was forced to close the plant in order to avoid an environmental catastrophe. Zhou Shengxian said: "China, along with the realization of the objectives of economic development, the most concerned about providing 1.3 billion people with clean drinking water, clean air, safe food and natural beauty of nature." The European Union in the near future plans to ban the production of plastic bags from unreprocessible and replace them Biobags.
It should be noted that some authors see the solution in the voluntary renunciation of excesses, in the likeness of consumer austerity, in adopting the principle of "voluntary simplicity." This principle can hardly be understood and accepted in society servitude of poverty, but where the possibilities of the rich choice and well delivered environmental education and awareness, it may have some value. Yet in most cases limit needs less to do with internal independent motivations of people with propaganda, but with the economic circumstances. For example, for 56% of the US population, to stop smoking, especially the original motive was the high cost of health care. That is why the greening of the economy requires a complete rejection of artificial provoking new demands and offers a lot of correlation with the demand for environmental and biomedical control. Link people to novelty must satisfy the creativity of the people themselves, and not the interests of profit. Control and limitation of freedom of marketing is sent out to eliminate the harmful effects of hype questionable secondary means of consumption and excessive range of goods and services. The dictates of the proposals should also oppose high consumer culture of the people.
The main consumer of fuel in Kazakhstan - the production of electricity and heat. Annual fuel consumption by this sector is around 30 million. At the fuel balance of power plays a major role coal share which is about 75% and gas 23%, the share of fuel oil 2%.
Electricity production in Kazakhstan in 2006 amounted to 71.6 billion kW/h. A steady increase in the dynamics of consumption and generation of electricity, which is associated with the development of the economy. It is assumed that the level of production of electric energy 1990 (87.38 billion to W/h) is reached Kazakhstan already by 2010 (Table 3). The dynamics of growth of consumption and production of electricity the Republic of Kazakhstan for the future are presented below.
Table 3: The dynamics of growth of consumption and production of electricity the Republic of Kazakhstan.
|Consumption of electricity, the MAWP. kWh/year||71.8||76.6||91.5||113|
|Electricity production, bln. kWh/year||71.5||75.5||85.0||94.5|
|Deficit billion. kWh/year||0.3||1.1||6.5||18.5|
At the current generating capacity is a shortage of production electricity. The total installed capacity electro station is about 18, 7 thousand MW. However, the existing generation capacity have significant service life (25 years or more), and therefore the available capacity is about 14 600 MW. The structure of thermal generation capacity Power up 15.42 MW, or 87% of total capacity, the share of hydropower plants - About 12%, other - 1%.
Given the significant depreciation of fixed assets will be required significant investments in building new power plants to meet the demand for electricity, why Kazakhstan has put forward a program for alternative energy supply (Table 4). Technical potential of the types of renewable energy in RK is huge, look at the table on impact of renewable energy .
Table 4: Technical potential of renewable energy.
|S. No||Type of renewable energy||Technical capacity|
As shown in Table 1 for the technical potential of solar and wind energy in the order superior to other types of renewable energy. But Kazakhstan is not ubiquitous in Exposure to extreme density of energy flow of the sun and the impermanence of time and, that is, the flux of solar radiation on the earth's surface at noon on a clear Day is only about 1 kW/m2, and its annual average value (adjusted for seasonal fluctuations and weather) for the sunniest regions of the globe does not exceed 250 W/m2 (for the middle band RK 120 W/m2).
That is why the greening of the economy requires a complete rejection of artificial provoking new demands and offers a lot of correlation with the demand for environmental and biomedical control. Link people to novelty must satisfy the creativity of the people themselves, and not the interests of profit. Control and limitation of freedom of marketing is sent out to eliminate the harmful effects of hype questionable secondary means of consumption and excessive range of goods and services. The dictates of the proposals should also oppose high consumer culture of the people.
We identify the key drivers of capital costs for wind plants and solar plants through literature review .
In Kazakhstan, the average annual wind speed in many areas exceed 5-6 m/s, and in the world to assume that with this wind the use of wind power plants (wind turbines) are very promising. Calculations: The average specific energy density of wind flow and, as a rule, does not exceed a few hundred W/m2. Thus, when the wind speed of 7 m/s specific power density (E=1/2 ρV3, ρ - air density, V - wind speed) is approximately 350 W/m2.
In this connection, Kazakhstan has adopted a program of transition to renewable energy sources, the purpose of which is the use of wind energy potential in Kazakhstan for production of electricity in the amount of 900 million. KWh per year in 2015 and 12 billion, KWh, by 2024.
The immediate results of the implementation of the Programme of development of wind energy will be:
• Attracted investments of about 2 100 million. Dollars. US construction WPP and introduced 300 MW by 2015 and 1,700 MW wind farm in 2024;
• Annually to the WEC 2024 will produce about 5 billion. KWh electricity per year, or about 3% of total production electricity in the Republic of Kazakhstan;
• Fuel savings would be about 1,4-1,75 million. Here in the year;
• Will cut emissions: 1.5 million. Tons of greenhouse gases per year, 30 000 tons of sulfur oxides, 20 000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 30 000 tons of fly ash storage of ash and slag at a rate of 1 million metric tons.
• Organization will be created, and small and medium-sized businesses, working in the field of wind energy.
Wind power shows a constant increase power to 20-30% per year. Interest in the development of wind energy explained the following factors:
• Renewable energy resource that does not depend on fuel prices;
• Lack of harmful emissions and greenhouse gases;
• The development of world market of wind turbines;
• Competitive cost of installed capacity (1000-1400 dollars. US/kWh);
• Competitive cost of electricity, which does not depend on the cost of fuel;
• Short construction period WPP capacity of adaptation to the required load;
• The possibility of a decentralized electricity supply for remote areas.
As can be seen from the above, the conversion of wind energy technology can meet the challenges imposed on small and alternative energy, which include :
1. Provide a guaranteed minimum supply of population and production in the areas of centralized power.
2. Sustainable heat and power production and the population in the areas of decentralized energy supply.
3. Compensation reduces fuel delivery to remote areas while increasing the reliability and efficiency of energy supply.
4. Reducing emissions from power plants in some towns and cities affected by environmental problems.
5. Improving economic competitiveness by reducing dependence on carbon materials and their share in final product cost
6. Transfer to a low carbon economy, reducing carbon dependency, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and a successful fight against global climate changes.
7. Support of knowledge development (knowledge economy) and environmental education development.
The above measures taken in different States can also help in the establishment of Kazakhstan market new technologies. Recycling and energy recovery are becoming more profitable activity, since they in the future will be a valuable resource.
It is vital to give clear signals to all of them by creating the conditions that will end the vicious circle that I mentioned earlier. If we are to secure an uninterrupted and affordable supply of energy, we need to make significant investments in new and intelligent infrastructure. That will be important for jobs, for sustainable growth and will enhance EU competitiveness.
In this regard, need to set cooperation with the states that already have good experience of the "Green Economy" and the countries that are just trying to introduce these innovations. Kazakhstan is very important, since all states being developed at a different pace, and learning from the experience of other countries, we will be able not only to make improvements in this area, but also to avoid the mistakes that were made of the countries applying this policy.
To date, tourism, in particular green - the fastest growing industry in the world. Green tourism - this is the sector that deserves more attention. He has the potential to provide a significant contribution to the economy in the form of new jobs, increase in income from foreign economic activity, increasing the state budget through taxes and others. This is an industry exports, but it is not their services exports from the country to the consumer. In tourism, the consumer comes into the country to buy and consume products and services produced. This creates additional income in the economy.
Thus, consider the impact of current trends "green economy on tourism development in the face of global challenges, approaches to greening management of tourist activity on the basis of the provisions of the policy of" green "economy, investigated the environmental problems and international experience introducing technologies of renewable technologies. In comparison with some countries in the Eurasian region Kazakhstan could use the existing potential is many times more effective. In general, for the development of "green economy" in tourism need to do discovery and development, to align the principles of planning, implement consistent financial incentives, grant programs to increase awareness and learning opportunity. Application of these measures will allow Kazakhstan to embark on a new level of development, to fully implement the policy in the direction of the "Green Economy" and tell the world about the development of "green tourism" in one of the richest tourism destination.
Thus, the transfer to “green economy” in tourism will contribute to popularized Kazakh resorts and consequently increased revenues.