ISSN: 1204-5357

Reach Us +441522440391
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Factors Affecting the Adoption and Usage of Online Services in Oman

Ahmad Shatat*

Faculty of Business, Sohar University, Sohar, Oman

*Corresponding Author:
Ahmad Shatat
Faculty of Business
Sohar University
Sohar, Oman
Tel: 0096899454155
Email: ahmadshatat79@gmail.com

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce

Abstract

Online services are a great solution to many trendy businesses and individuals if adopted and used properly, and if not will cause many interruptions to the businesses and end-users. This research paper investigates the factors that affecting the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. A survey questionnaire was used to explore the impact of some core influential factors on the adoption and usage of online services within the Omani context by testing the data that were collected from 270 participants in Al-Batinah North region. This study identifies the key influential factors such as usefulness, ease of use, cultural and social issues, awareness, trustworthiness, security, and privacy. The findings of this research show that there is a significant relationship between usefulness, ease of use, and trustworthiness with the adoption and use of online services in Oman. The results clarify the main factors that influence the decision of Omanis and other residents to adopt and use the online services that are provided by many firms in the Sultanate of Oman. The implication of findings is briefly discussed.

Keywords

Online Services; E-Services; Influential Factors; Adoption; Usage; E-Oman

Introduction

The Internet has changed everything; entire industries, publishing firms, banks, airlines, government agencies, and many others will never be the same. Companies such as e-Bay, Amazon, Dell, etc. have created a very powerful mechanism to connect with their customers in order to provide pure and partial e-commerce. This new movement has created great opportunities to several industries and individuals to cut costs and save time, meanwhile it has also created threats and many other challenges. Public and private sectors as well as the end-users must work together to take advantage of this opportunities and overcome the associated risks. The Internet connection is available almost in every place and to everyone which assists many end-users to adopt and use the provided online services. It has also provided the platform for businesses and individuals to connect and meet in a virtual community which facilitate information sharing and e-business transactions. Firms realized the importance of being part of this e-business community and create many channels to grasp the end customers regardless to their locations. The huge shift from PCs to mobile devices by many businesses and individuals has contributed to make the location of sellers and buyers irrelevant which helps in extending the buying and selling activities everywhere to a large extent [1-4].

This rapid growth of using the Internet has increased the use of e-services in modern businesses which affects individuals, small, medium, and large organizations, and has also reformed the marketplace and business relationships. Adopting e-services by organizations and individuals becomes mandatory to facilitate many business transactions and enhance the relationship among business partners. Many steps have been taken by government and private agents to achieve the national digital strategy (e-Oman), but on the other hand the engagement of the end-users still needs enormous efforts and innovative ways to better engage and interact with the end-users. Very few studies investigated the factors affecting the adoption and usage of online services in the Arab world particularly in the Gulf region, therefore it very important to conduct such a study in Oman or any other Arab country. In Oman, there are many public and private organizations that provide online services, yet the usage of online services is very limited due to the absence of some of the influential factors such as usefulness, ease of use, cultural and social issues, awareness, trustworthiness, security, and privacy. This research will raise awareness and provide a clear understanding of the end-users’ perceptions towards the online services in general and the related factors in particular within the Omani context.

The objective of this study is to understand the influential factors that influence the adoption and usage of online services in Oman and also to raise awareness of those important factors within the Omani context.

1. To examine the factors that would boost the usage of online services.

2. To understand the users’ willingness to adopt online services.

3. To investigate the extent of online services’ acceptance by end-users.

4. To understand the perceptions of the end-users towards the influential factors that influences the online services.

Literature Review

Online Services and the Influential Factors

The fast growth of Internet adoption and usage every day has increased the demand on online services in every sectors, this new movement has restructured the marketplace and the business relationships among businesses and individuals. Adopting the online services by businesses and individuals has become almost mandatory in the current fast growing digital economy. The literatures have identified several organizational factors that may affect the individuals and organizations decision to use and adopt the technology in different context. These factors include cultural, organizational, managerial, political, social, economic, and many other technological factors [5,6] .

In literatures there are numerous studies identified the factors influencing the end-users’ decision to accept new technology. For instance, Baker et al. [7] considered the lack of awareness of any technology as essential concern related to the adoption and usage of that technology. Factors such as lack of familiarity, lack of awareness, culture and other factors will influence the adoption of online services significantly. Therefore, decision makers need to consider and understand these factors in order to encourage the use of technology instead of the traditional way of delivering services [8,9]. Ghobakhloo et al. [10] classified the factors influencing the users’ adoption in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) into two major categories, internal and external factors. The internal factors were within the organizational context which consists of top management, organizational behavior and characteristics, and end-users (staff) and resources. The other external factors include IT products in market, external and competitive pressure, government and external IT consultant, and vendors.

Lee [11] used the theory of planned behavior to describe the factors affection the intention to use online financial services which indicates that the quality of information received from online services needs to be considered by the decision makers throughout many mechanisms. Khalil et al. [12] examine factors such as relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trial ability and observability, their study aimed to explore the impact of such factors on using online banking among university students based on theory of diffusion of innovation (IDT). In Malaysia, Suganthi et al. [13] found that factors of accessibility, reluctance to changes, costs, trust, security concerns, convenience, and ease of use are influencing the adoption of Internet banking. Another study by Naidoo [14] in South Africa identified the key factors that affect the acceptance and the adoption of electronic bill payment solution such as usefulness, time saving, cost saving, convenience, trust and self-efficiency. In India Malhotra et al. [15] investigated the Internet banking adoption by end-users which indicates that factors such as perceived reliability, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant relationship with end-users’ adoption.

Online Services in Arab Countries

Al-adwan et al. [16] investigated the factors affecting the impact of e-learning implementation in the Jordanian higher education system. The study was conducted on full time staff and students in two Jordanian universities and revealed that training and development were critically required prior to the implementation stage of e-learning system. Another study by Al-adwan et al. [16] shows the factors affecting the adoption of self-service technology by the Jordanian users which classified them into three groups, factors relating to automated teller machine technology, psychological factors, and demographic factors. The study was conducted on seven major banks located in Amman; it concluded that all the three groups affected the adoption of self-service technology. Naji [17] examined the factors influencing the teachers’ acceptance to work on Moodle system at the Islamic university of Gaza as a case study which came up with factors such as service quality, system quality, technical support, confidence, satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use that are affecting the acceptance of using Moodle system. Abukhzam et al. [18] highlighted several factors affect the intention to adopt e-banking technology by bank staff in Libya. The study identified lessons which can guide the future of e-banking implementation projects in Arab countries. Another study conducted in Lebanon to explore the critical factors influencing the e-banking adoption like intention, attitude, perceived behavioral control, trust, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use [19].

Alshehri et al. [20] observed the challenges and obstacles of e-government adoption in Saudi Arabia using an empirical study to survey 460 IT department employees from different public sectors. The study came out with a list of recommendations for the policy makers to improve the e-government services in Saudi Arabia. Al-Awadhi et al. [21], studied the e-government services adoption by in Kuwait, the study concluded that factors such usefulness, ease of use, reforming bureaucracy, cultural and social influences, technology issues and lack of awareness are affecting the adoption of e-government services in Kuwait. In UAE in 2012, a research identified the characteristics of UAE consumers and attitude toward the Internet banking. The study realized that security is the most factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking in UAE [22]. Swid et al. [23] conducted a study to investigate the factors affecting the consumer intention to use e-services among telecommunication providers in Bahrain. The study examined the effect of regulatory environment on the users’ intention to adopt e-services; it has been found that there is a significant impact of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on the users’ intention to adopt e-services.

Online Services in Oman

The number of Internet users in Oman is growing significantly. According to the Internet Word State Report the number of Internet users in Oman was 2,584,316 as on Dec 31, 2014 representing 78.6% of the population [24]. The UN e-government report stated that the Omani e-government has been improved in the global rankings jumping from 64 in 2012 to 84 in 2014 [25]. However, there are many barriers preventing many Internet users to adopt and use the online services. A study has been conducted in Oman by AlShihi [26] highlighted some barriers affecting the adoption and usage of the e-government services in Oman such as users’ lack of IT Knowledge, awareness and motivation, absence of marketing campaigns, users’ lack of trust and confidence. Al-Rahbi, et al. [27] studied the technical factors affecting the e-government in six government agencies in Oman which are ICT infrastructure, IT security, IT standards and technical expertise. According to Alraja et al. [28], trust and relative advantage are significantly affecting the online intention to use e-government in Dhofar citizens. E-business is growing rapidly in Oman and elsewhere and everyone should take advantage of this technology to contribute in the national strategy e-Oman and to be part of the global digital strategy. Limited studies have been found in literature investigating the factors influencing the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. This research will contribute to the literature by exploring the major influential factors that enhance the usage and adoption of online services within the Omani society. The outcome of this research is expected to assist the decision makers to have a better and deeper understanding of users’ perception towards the usage and adoption of online services to develop and provide more effective e-services.

Summary of Literature Review in Several Countries

Table 1 presents the key influential factors that affecting the adoption and usage of e-services in several countries. All influential factors that are used in this study to investigate the impact of these factors on the adoption and usage of online services are presented in one or more studies in literatures.

Table 1: Summary of literature review in several countries.

1. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
OMAN Factors Affecting M-commerce adoption in Oman using Technology
Acceptance Modelling Approach
Naqvi et al. [29] 2014 To explore the factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce services in Oman using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) approach. Quantitative survey questionnaire 89 respondents of which 61% were male and 39% female.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
users' attitudes
security
privacy
trust 
regulatory framework, legislations,
awareness, risks uncertainties’ speed,
user friendly
Computing and comparing the percentages of the users’ responses. Many mobile users were unaware of the M-commerce services initiatives as there were no
or very little publicity and marketing campaigns to promote them.
Many individuals were unaware of the benefits of using M-commerce service.
Many users were not fully comfortable in using their mobile devices and were not so keen to try the new services. Many users experienced slow responses from the mobile networks or its unavailability.
Many users felt the cost of SMS and MMS were high which limit the adopters of these services
This study is an attempt towards understanding and highlighting the issues related to the adoption of M-commerce services recently offered in Oman. The trust appears as one of the major inhibiting factor for adopting M-commerce services. Individuals appear to have doubts over business transactions security and its confidentiality and the lack of firm legislations in the country. The main limitations of the study are the sample size and robust analytical model.
2. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
UAE Adaptation of Internet Banking In UAE: Factors Underlying Adoption Characteristics Mansumitrchai S [22] 2012 To identify the characteristics of UAE consumers and their attitudes toward the Internet banking. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. The qualitative method was used to gain insight into how consumers value the online banking -Two different focus groups, adopters and non-adopters, were interviewed.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Compatibility
Difficulty
Security
Trust
Third Party Concern
Status
Human Contact
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) There is a difference between adopters and non-adopters’ attitudes toward three factors of adoption: compatibility, trust, and human contact.
No significance differences were found between the attitudes of adopters and non- adopters toward the issues of security, third party concern and status. An interesting finding
was that the human or physical contact and trust were the most important factors for non-adopter.
Compatibility was an important attribute for the adoption of online banking, indicating that consumers in UAE preferred innovations for their lifestyle. Ease of use, convenience and twenty-four-hour availability of services from online banking was favourable for UAE consumers.
The Factor analysis suggested seven characteristics that important for Internet banking adoption, namely compatibility, difficulty, security, trust, third party concern, status, and human contact. Investigating and comparing of characteristics of the adoption of Internet banking between adopters and non-adopters. There is a difference between adopters and non-adopters on their perceptions of online Banking adoption on three factors (compatibility, trust and human contact).
The limitation of this study is the sample selection, due to non-random sampling.
3. Title Authors Year Research objectives Research Methodology
Adoption and use of E-Government Services In The Abu Dhabi Police
Force: A Qualitative Study
Hassan et al. [30] 2012 To identify and understand factors affecting the diffusion, adoption and use of e-services in a public sector organization. Qualitative 39 participants’ interviews from different management levels and ranks.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Age
Education
Position
Several analysis Younger participants in certain departments
displayed more interest in adopting and using e-services.
Education has a large hand in changing individuals’ attitudes towards acceptance and use of innovative technologies.
The position that one holds within the organization impacts the acceptance and use of innovation.
The contributions from this research are anticipated to be a better understanding of the diffusion, adoption and use of e-services in the UAE region. Age, education level and position are influencing the adoption of e-government services in UAE.
4. Title Authors Year Research objectives Research Methodology
Qatar Factors Affecting E-Government Adoption in The State of Qatar Al-Shafi et al. [31] 2010 To Explore The Factors Affecting E-
Government Adoption in the State of Qatar
Survey questionnaire was selected as the primary data collection method 35 closed format questions were
used limiting individual responses
to multiple choice.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Facilitating condition
Performance Expectancy
Effort Expectancy
Social Influence
Behavioral intention to adopt
Adoption behavior
Gender
Age
Education level
Regression analysis That effort expectancy and social influences
Determine citizens’ behavioral intention towards e-government. Additionally, facilitating conditions and behavioral intention were found to determine citizens’ use of e- government services in Qatar 
This research presents an initial attempt towards understanding the adoption of the e-
government Services in Qatar from citizen’s
perspective
Performance Expectancy, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions significantly influenced the behavioural intention to use of citizens for adopting e-government services in Qatar.
5. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Saudi Arabia Factors Influencing E-Commerce Adoption By Retailers In Saudi Arabia : A Quantitative Analysis AlGhamdi et al. [32] 2010 To identify and explore key issues that positively and negatively influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether to adopt the online channel or not. Quantitative analysis-148 participants
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Trust government support
assistance for e-commerce ICT Infrastructure educational programs unfavorable Saudi consumer habits,
lack of government regulations, lack of online payment options
Several analysis Listing the key factors that affect retailers’ decision to adopt e-commerce Understanding the adoption of the e-
commerce by retailers in Sadia Arabia
Government and the industry should pay attentions to these
factors to facilitate e-retail growth in the country.
6. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Factors Influencing the Adoption and Usage of Online Services in Saudi Arabia Al-Ghaith et al. [33] 2010 To investigate the factors influencing the adoption and usage of e-service in Saudi Arabia.
To raise awareness and enhance understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia in the light of the Rogers' (2003) diffusion of innovations theory DOI.
Quantitative 651 individuals participated in a survey questionnaires.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Relative Advantage
Compatibility
Complexity
Observability
Trainability
Demographic Variables
Cost of the Internet
Quality of the Internet,
Quality of e-service
Security of e-Trust
Compatibility,
Complexity
Observability
Regression Perceived complexity factor was found to be the most significantly related factor affecting e-service adoption in Saudi Arabia, followed in turn by Privacy and Compatibility. Quality of the Internet and its relative advantage also had a notable effect on e-service usage and adoption in Saudi Arabia. Understanding the factors influencing the online services users to help the decision makers to improve the service provided. This study covered the online services that are offered by Internet websites in Saudi Arabia Rogers (2003) showed demographic attributes play an important rolein predicting adoption and that economic status (income) is highly correlated to initial adoption Complexity was the best predictor of e-service adoption. Relative advantage was the second predictor of e-service adoption Compatibility was the predictor of e-service adoption.
7. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Kuwait Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services Al-awadhi et al. [21] 2009 Identified the attitudes and perceptions of the citizens of Kuwait, a developing country, towards the adoption of e-government services. Quantitative
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Usefulness ease of use reforming bureaucracy cultural and social influences technology issues lack of awareness percentages of the users’ responses Attractive awareness campaigns are very important for the adoption of online services. Provides useful insights into the motivations underlying the intentions to use e-government services in developing countries. In order to attract users to adopt these services, the decision makers should provide an efficient and should meet their specific needs. Attractive awareness campaigns should be conducted; easy services and available sources and knowledge should be provided to the users.
8. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Gulf Countries Technology Adoption in The Arabian Gulf Countries: The Case of E-Government Omari [34] 2013 To investigate the advantages of implementing e-government systems throughout Arabian Gulf countries. To discuss the challenges facing the adoption of e-government in the Arabian Gulf countries. To highlight some important points that need to be taken into account in all phases of the engineering process of the e-government. Qualitative
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Infrastructure, Policy issues Human development, continuous learning Change management Strategy, Cultural differences Ease of use, E-Bureaucracy Descriptive There is an advantage of reducing cost, time, efforts, and bureaucracy. The understanding of these advantages can help decision-makers recognize the success and risk factors in e-government adoption. Also, understanding the culture requirements and considering it during the design process. Some practices and design strategies should be considering in during the design phase of e- government website.
9. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Iran Factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking Naimi Baraghani [35] 2007 To investigate the adoption and usage of Internet banking transactions by individuals in Iran as an example of a developing country. Quantitative
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Perceived usefulness
Perceived ease of use
Attitude
Perceived Behavioral Control
Subjective norms
Perceived Risk
Intention of construct
trust
 
Regression Attitude, Perceived Behavioral Control, perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use have significantly effect on influencing the adoption of Internet banking The Internet banking is a worthwhile topic to study so that the quality of services in Iranian banking sector can be enhanced for the future. There is a need to understand user's
acceptance of Internet banking and a need to identify the factors that can affect their intention to use Internet banking.
The study shows that there is a problem in using the Internet in
the middle east, and there is a lack of experience within individuals and organizations, and most of the potential users are unqualified.
10. Title Authors Year Research Objectives Research Methodology
Ethiopia Analysis of factors influencing customers’ intention to the adoption of E-banking services channels in Bahir Dar city : an integration of TAM, TPB, and PR. Takele et al. [36] 2013 To examine the determinants of customers’ intention to adopt e-banking service channels in Bahir Dar city by deriving factors from (TAM). Quantitative, 10 commercial banks were surveyed in Bahir Dar city.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Perceived usefulness
Perceived ease of use
Attitude
Perceived Behavioral control
Subjective norms
Perceived Risk
Regression The seven factors of the study were significantly influencing the users' behavioural intention to use e-banking. Understanding the factors influencing the e-banking services users help the decision
maker to improve the service provided
The factors that included in the model of this research are significantly influencing the adoption of e-banking services.
11. Title Authors Year Research objectives Research Methodology
Factors influencing the adoption of M-commerce: An exploratory Analysis Sadi et al. [37] 2011 To identify some factors that affect the adoption of M-commerce in Malaysia based on traditional technology models such as Theory of Reason Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Diffusion Innovation theory (DOI). 600 questionnaires were distributed and 349 usable questionnaires returned after 28 questionnaires omitted due to the missing data found.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Perceived Usefulness
Perceived Ease of Use Personal Innovativeness Perceived Trust Perceived Cost Subjective norms
Perceived Behavioral Control Facilitating Conditions Self-Efficacy
Attitude towards Use connection speed secure systems
easy transaction method
An exploratory factor analysis All the thirteen (13) factors were statistically significant and can affect the adoption of m-commerce. Finding the major factors influencing the adoption of M-commerce. Improvement required for M-commerce in order to attract more users in Malaysia. Perceived usefulness found to be one of the critical factors affecting these services.
12. Title Authors Year Research objectives Research Methodology
Kenya Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking in Kenya: A Case of Imperial Bank Warui [38] 2014 To investigate the factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking among users using a case of Imperial bank in Kenya. Descriptive research design. The research population was 4,916 which consisted of 476 employees "Structured questionnaires".
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Security
users ‘attitude
Internet payment
Descriptive analysis: transforming a mass of raw data into tables, charts, with frequency distribution and percentages. The findings on the perception of security and utilization of Internet banking services indicated that customers face a dilemma between desirable and undesirable consequences of the adoption and hence face a risky decision on security. Insufficient trust on financial institutions is a critical perceived credibility issues that lower Internet banking acceptance. Customer trust is an essential way
to retain existing bank customers as well as encouraging the adoption of Internet banking.
Provide a practical understanding of Internet banking among the financial institutions. From a practical standpoint, the study can provide banks with a better understanding of the determinants of Internet banking acceptance and be able to address and review their Internet banking strategies, website features, and online security features. The study recommends that banks should ensure Internet banking security to boost consumer confidence. Internet banking should be trustworthy and secure to avoid undesirable consequences in the face of risky decisions. There should be a fast response time to answer customer queries in relation to Internet banking services. Banks should hire well knowledgeable and qualified personnel to answer customer queries.
13. Title Authors Year Research objectives Research Methodology
Mexico Factors Underlying the Adoption of Online Banking by Mexican Consumers Mansumitrchai et al. [39] 2011 To examine the factors underlying the adoption characteristics of Internet (online) banking by Mexican consumers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Main factors Data analysis methods Major findings Significance of the study Conclusion
Difficulty,
Trust,
Compatibility,
Third party concerns,
Human contact,
Social influence,
Security
Computer Proficiency
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) The results from factor analysis suggest eight characteristics of the adoption, namely difficulty, trust, compatibility, third party concerns, human contact, social influence, security, and computer proficiency.
The results show statistically significant
differences on the adoption between adopters and non-adopters on four factors (difficulty, trust, compatibility and human contact).
Benefit for both academics and financial institutions. There is a difference on the adoption of online banking between the adopters and non-adopters.

Research Methodology

This research attempts to investigate the impact of the influential factors on adoption and usage of online services in Oman. A field study has been conducted in a natural e-business environment where a questionnaire survey has been used in order to collect data related to the variables of interest in this research. The questionnaire has been posted to e-services’ end-users in Oman as they have been the key informant and the unit of analysis for this study. The population of this research was all e-services’ end-users in Oman, whereas the sample has been determined using convenience sampling technique. The design of the questionnaire for this research requires variety of measures and items which has been collected and adapted from different sources. The selection of the factors of this study is based on the expected significant contribution of these factors in improving the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

Seven factors have been selected as the major influential factors that improve the adoption and usage of e-services and this is after extensive literature review, the factors are usefulness, ease of use, cultural and social issues, awareness, trustworthiness, security, and privacy. This study went through the basic research phases such as proposal writing, which includes observation, preliminary data gathering, problem definition, and review of literature; theoretical framework and hypothesis; research design; data collection and analysis; and report writing and presentation. This research is based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). TAM is a tool to test the adoption of any new technology by end-users [40,41]. It is a common tool and widely used to measure the consumers’ intention to accept or decline a particular technology. It is proposed by Davis [42] in 1986 and help to predict the users’ behavior of any piece of information technology [43]. TAM addressed two particular beliefs which are:Seven factors have been selected as the major influential factors that improve the adoption and usage of e-services and this is after extensive literature review, the factors are usefulness, ease of use, cultural and social issues, awareness, trustworthiness, security, and privacy. This study went through the basic research phases such as proposal writing, which includes observation, preliminary data gathering, problem definition, and review of literature; theoretical framework and hypothesis; research design; data collection and analysis; and report writing and presentation. This research is based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). TAM is a tool to test the adoption of any new technology by end-users [40,41]. It is a common tool and widely used to measure the consumers’ intention to accept or decline a particular technology. It is proposed by Davis [42] in 1986 and help to predict the users’ behavior of any piece of information technology [43]. TAM addressed two particular beliefs which are:

• Perceived usefulness (PU): The perspective of user that using the technology will improve the performance of the work by increasing the work productivity, effectiveness and useful.

• Perceived ease of use (PEOU): The perspective of user that using the technology will reduce the effort require for doing the work by easy, clear, controllable, and understandable system (Figure 1).

internet-banking-demontsration-Technology

Figure 1: Schematics of the theory Technology Acceptance Model TAM. Source: Davis et al. [40], Venkatesh et al.

The TRA was first developed in the late 1960s by Martin Fishbein and Icek Azjen. It explains the users’ intentions to actually use the system and behave in a way that gives direction to consumers’ behavior toward innovation which links behavior, beliefs, norms, intentions, and attitudes together. TRA addressed two particular beliefs which are:

• Attitude towards an act or a behavior: i.e. the degree in which the behavior performance is positive or negative. O Subjective norm: i.e. the person’s perception toward any behavior [44].

The theory can be summarized by this equation, Behavioral Intention=Attitude + Subjective norms [45] (Figure 2).

internet-banking-demontsration-reasoned

Figure 2: Schematics of the theory of reasoned action (TRA).

Based on the above theories the following framework has been developed to examine the relationship between the critical influential factors and the adoption and usage of online services (Figure 3):

internet-banking-demontsration-Framework

Figure 3: The Research Framework.

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of influential factors on the adoption and usage of online services throughout testing the relationship between the proposed variables. Therefore, the following hypotheses have been developed:

H1: Privacy is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H2: Awareness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H3: Ease of Use is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H4: Usefulness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H5: Cultural and Social Issues are positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H6: Security is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

H7: Trustworthiness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

The following Table 2 presents a summary of each variable that is used in this research model which includes clarification and the source of each variable.

Table 2: Summary of Variables.

Variable Explanation Source
Usefulness The degree to which a person believes that using online services would enhance the job performance and serving some purposes. Sadi et al. [37], Mansumitrchai [22], Naimi Baraghani [35], Al-Ghaith et al. [33], Takele et al. [36]
Ease of Use The degree to which a person believes that using online services would be free of effort. Naimi Baraghani [35], Omari [34], Sadi et al. [37], Al-Ghaith et al. [33], Yitbarek Takele et al. [36]
Cultural and Social
Issues
The degree, to which peers influence use of the system, be it positive or negative. Al-Awadhi et al. [21], Mansumitrchai [22], Al-Ghaith et al. [33]
Awareness The degree to which a person is unconscious, ignoring and has no intention to use online services. Al-Shafi et al. [31, Sathye [46], Polatoglu et al. [47]
Trustworthiness The degree to which a person belief, depend on and confidence in online service. Naqvi et al. [29], Naimi Baraghani [35], Al-Ghaith et al. [33]
Security The degree to which the online services is protecting the user information and begin free of harm. Naqvi et al. [29], Mansumitrchai [22], Naimi Baraghani [35], Warui [38], Al-Ghaith et al. [33]
Privacy The degree to which the online services is protecting the user information. Naqvi et al. [29], Mansumitrchai [22], Naimi Baraghani [35], Al-Ghaith et al. [33]

Analysis And Findings

Response rate

A total of 270 usable questionnaires were received out of 400 questionnaires distributed conveniently to the participants in different places in Al-Batinah north region. Out of that 168 were male represents 62.2 percent and 102 were female represents 37.8 percent; however, 79.3 percent of the participants are Omanis. The majority of the respondents were between 19 to 45 years of age group and most of them are married, their salary mostly ranges between 1000 to 2000 Omani Rial. 44 percent of the participants are working in government sectors, 39.3 percent in private sectors, and 16.7 percent are others including students, unemployed, or they have their own business. Table 3 presents the demographic profile of the respondents.

Table 3: Summary of Demographic Profile of Respondents.

Variables Category Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 168 62.2
Female 102 37.8
Nationality Omani 214 79.3
non-Omani 56 20.7
Age less than 18 9 3.3
Between 19-30 127 47.0
Between 31-45 108 40.0
Between 46-60 25 9.3
more than 60 1 0.4
Marital Status Married 166 61.5
Divorced 7 2.6
Single 96 35.6
Widower/Widow 1 0.4
Occupation Government employee 119 44
Private sector 106 39.3
Others 45 16.7
Monthly income Less than 500 OMR 61 22.6
between 501-1000 OMR 88 32.6
between 1001-1500 OMR 78 28.9
between 1501-2000 OMR 22 8.1
more than 2001 OMR 21 7.8

Reliability analysis

Reliability analysis has been conducted in order to measure internal consistency across items in the instrument which provided by Coefficient Alpha (α) or Cronbach’s Alpha. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the measures in this study was all above the lower limit of acceptability which is 0.60 (Cronbach’s Alpha>0.60). Table 4 presents the reliability analysis for this study which shows that Cronbach’s Alpha is equal to 0.83 and that highly reliable (Table 5).

Table 4: Reliability Analysis of Scales.

Item Result
Cronbach's Alpha 0.83
Split-Half (odd-even) Correlation 0.74
Spearman-Brown Prophecy 0.85
Mean for Test 104.14
Standard Deviation for Test 14.80

Table 5: Online services usage information.

Variables Frequency Percentage
Frequency of online services usage Less than 5 times 68 25.18
Between 5 and 10 68 25.18
Between 10 and 20 48 17.77
More than 20 times 86 31.85
The place of using the online services Home 215 79.62
Library 24 8.88
Workplace 120 44.44
Café 30 11.11
Other places 41 15.18
The mode to know about the provided online services Newsletter/magazine 69 25.6
TV/Radio 72 26.7
Referred by friend 133 49.3
Word of mouth 34 12.6
Others 52 19.3
The mechanism by which participants use the online services Mobile 248 92.22
Laptop 123 45.55
Office Computer 86 31.9
Tablet 44 16.3
Others 13 4.8

The usage of online services

Around 32 percent of the respondents are using online services more than 20 times per single day, and 18 percent of them are using the provided online services between 10 to 20 times per day. However, minimum 5 to 10 times per day are the usage of online services by around 25 percent of the respondents.

Hypotheses testing

The following Table 6 indicates significant correlation among most of the independent variables that affecting the adoption and usage of online services and with the dependent variable as well which is the adoption. However, variables such as usefulness (r=0.36, p<0.01), ease of use (r=0.43, p<0.01), cultural and social issues (r=0.22, p<0.01), trustworthiness (r=0.51, p<0.01), and privacy (r=0.31, p<0.01) are significantly and positively correlated with the adoption and usage of online services.

Table 6: Summary of Correlation Analysis.

Measures USE EASE CSI A TRUST PRI SEC ADOP
Usefulness (USE) 1.00
Ease of Use (EASE) 0.491** 1.00
Cultural and Social Issues
(CSI)
0.148* 0.272** 1.00
awareness (A) -0.148* -0.066 0.339** 1.00
Trustworthiness (TRUST) 0.246** 0.258** 0.269** 0.049 1.00
Privacy (PRI) 0.174** 0.231** 0.213** 0.251** 0.483** 1.00
Security (SEC) 0.237** 0.201** 0.381** 0.049 0.008 0.209** 1.00
Adoption (ADOP) 0.355** 0.429** 0.216** 0.045 0.508** 0.309** 0.113 1.00

According to the results in the Table 7 below the influential factors explain 36% of the variance in adoption and usage of online services (R2=0.36). The F value is around 21 and the significant linear model is at alpha=0.01 which indicates that all the variables collectively make a significant contribution to the adoption and usage of online services. Trustworthiness and ease of use are the two major factors that contribute significantly in the influence of adoption and usage of online service as they have the largest beta coefficient among all factors (β=0.38, p<0.01) and (β=0.20, p<0.01) respectively, this followed by usefulness (β=0.091, p<0.05) which contributes significantly but comparatively low. On other hands, security, awareness, and privacy are also contributing positively to the effect on the adoption and usage of online service but not significantly. However, cultural and social issues show no contribution at all to the overall adoption of these services.

Table 7: Multiple Regressions: (Std. Beta coefficient).

Factors affecting the adoption
and usage of online services
Adoption and usage of
online services
Usefulness 0.091**
Ease of Use 0.204***
Cultural and Social Issues -0.011
Awareness 0.068
Trustworthiness 0.381***
Privacy 0.016
Security 0.009
R 0.600
R2 0.360
Adjust R2 0.343
F 20.90***

Table 8 presents the summary of hypotheses testing for the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. The research findings supported all the proposed hypotheses except one which is hypothesis number 5 cultural and social issues where its standard beta coefficient shows negative result. The definition of cultural and social issues is the degree to which peers influence the use of the system, be it positive or negative. However, in this study the culture and social issues were negatively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

Table 8: Summary of the hypotheses testing for the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

Hypotheses
No.
Statement of Hypotheses Remarks
H1 Privacy is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted
H2 Awareness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted
H3 Ease of Use is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted
H4 Usefulness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted
H5 Cultural and Social Issues is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Rejected
H6 Security is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted
H7 Trustworthiness is positively related to the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. Accepted

Conclusion

The findings of this study indicate that, privacy, awareness, ease of use, usefulness, security, and trustworthiness are all positively influencing the adoption and usage of online services in Oman. The existence of these influential factors will contribute toward enhancing the perceptions of the end-users to adopt and use the available online services which will encourage many users to do most of the transactions online and that will help many stakeholders to save time and efforts. The outcome of this study is providing the decision makers a better and deeper understanding of the users’ perceptions towards the adoption and usage of online services to develop and provide more effective e-services architecture that motivates the end-users to use the provided online services and eventually contribute to the national digital strategy, known as e-Oman. As more private and public organizations adopt online services, it becomes important for these organizations to identify factors that influence end-users' adoption. The factors that being investigated in this research are giving a clear thoughtful about the users’ perceptions which will help many firms to develop some critical factors in order to improve the current e-services and therefore satisfy the end-users.

In order to have better understanding of the end-users’ perceptions towards the online services and to improve the representation of population, the survey should be extended to another states in Oman to cover a larger sample size to get more respondents from different background and different environment. The research would also propose a future field of study known as co-created e-services which can help the end-users and the e-services providers to work and interact closely with each other to share ideas for better development of the existing e-services. Currently in Oman there are many end-users are not fully aware and they do not take full advantage of all available online services that provided by many private and public organizations. This is mainly due to lack of awareness that the online services are easy to use, secure, and very useful for all stakeholders particularly the end-users. The continuance enhancement of the influential factors such as privacy, lack of awareness, ease of use, usefulness, security, and trustworthiness will certainly enhance the adoption and usage of online services in Oman.

References

izmir escort bayan escort izmir bursa escort izmir escort porno porno izle türk porno eskişehir escort bartın escort burdur escort eskişehir escort izmir escort escort bursa türk porno escort bayan