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ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCE OF JOB SATISFACTION

FARRUKH ABBAS

Federal Urdu University of Science and Technology Islamabad, Pakistan

Tel: +923005536552

Email: safmi_26@yahoo.com

HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ISHAQ

Federal Urdu University of Science and Technology Islamabad, Pakistan

Email: ishaq74nk@yahoo.com

IRFAN ULLAH

Iqra University Islamabad, Pakistan

Email: irfanullahtarar1979@gmail.com

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Abstract

Purpose: In the modern era, human resources are declared as valuable and unique assets of any type of organization. Thus, the organizations having these unique assets can enhance and equip through homogeneous management’s behavior and effective motivation practices. Even though extensive research works has been accomplished in the area related to human resource management and job performance, but in this particular work job satisfaction is used as mediating variable to check out that satisfied workers can become better performers. The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of management’s behavior and motivation on job performance of employees, also to assess the mediating impact of job satisfaction. Methodology/Design/Approach: This research work is based on multiple probability sampling technique, where the data were collected through a survey by personal visits from 256 employees of the banking sector of twin cities as Rawalpindi and Islamabad of Pakistan. Findings: The findings show that there is a valuable relationship between management’s behavior and job performance, another significant relationship was found between motivation practices and job performance. Job satisfaction was declared as strong mediating facet between management’s behavior and job performance as well as a mediator between motivation and job performance. Originality/Value: This research work is 1st effort in Pakistan towards the perspective i.e. antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction. The findings of this particular study can be useful to HR policy makers, managers as well as academic institutions, researchers and government.

Keywords

Management’s Behavior; Motivation; Job Satisfaction; Job Performance

Introduction

Study Background

Positive interactions of workforce with their employers have become a basic necessity of every business. Organizations can achieve their missions with the help of interaction between their employees with organizations. More satisfied workforce can enhance organizational performance as well as their own job performance. So, the human resource department and policy makers need to renew and amend their regulations regarding workforce in order to enhance the values of social capital, level of job satisfaction, and employee’s job performance [1]. The language of management has been considered, as a worthful determinant for their social type detection even for employees and others, the behavioral language of management is more important than other attributes i.e. psychological and functional [2]. Usually organizational workforce faces two targets, first is to achieve the results desired by the management and second is to achieve the results regarding organizational objectives. Employees are normally committed to their management, they want to do the best for their management first and then effective performance regarding their organizational goals [3]. If these two targets for employees are same then it will be easier for them to get satisfaction and perform effectively.

Employees have their own needs and if the organization fulfills that particular needs called motivation and a particular behavior made from the workforce side of the organization after fulfillment of that particular needs. The organization can fulfill the needs with the help of rewards, which may be a bonus, prizes, and incentives [4]. The workforce can get required job satisfaction after motivation given by the organization, which will enhance their job performance. Valuable motivation can produce switching type behavior in employees, i.e. the communication style of employees may depend upon their roles, purposes, with respect to others and as according to situation produces valuable job performances [5]. In 1929, all banks had massive sum of loans to foreign entities, and when the flood curved, no one was in the place of making fresh loans, to facilitate the borrowers to roll over the huge debt. Banks quick to the way out to drop off their collection of loans, or stay until development, and not rotate them over, but that's not how debt works: corporations and countries borrow under the statement that they will not want to refund all their debt at once, they anticipate to be capable to roll it at development, at least to some level. This led to liquidation, more rush to the depart and to more bankruptcies. The Foreign demand distorted, US-based firms were cut off from exports, had to decrease their production considerably, lay off people, which in turn reduced home demand, and pushed the US into a violent circle of economic recession. From this point of view, banks provideing abroad did play a enormous role in the collapse and successive Depression, but only by inflating the bubble in the first place.

Fintech is a portmanteau of monetary technology that illustrates an talented financial services sector in the 21st century. Originally, the term applied to technology applied to the back-end of established consumer and trade financial institutions. Since the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the term has expanded to include any technological innovation in the financial sector, including innovations in financial literacy and education, retail banking, investment etc. The term financial technology can apply to any innovation in how people transact business, from the invention of digital money to double-entry bookkeeping. Since the internet revolution and the mobile internet revolution, however, financial technology has grown explosively, and fintech, which originally referred to computer technology applied to the back office of banks or trading firms, now describes a broad variety of technological interventions into personal and commercial finance. According to EY's Fintech Adoption Index, one-third of consumers utilize at least two or more fintech services and those consumers are also increasingly aware of fintech as a part of their daily lives.

Problem Identification

Effective resources are utilized by enterprises for the production of quality job performance, positive attentions towards organizational goals. If the enterprise is not getting the required job performance of the workforce, the result may be a failure in the entire competitive market also failure of utilizing resources [6,7]. Organizational politics and supportless behaviors by management for workforce can produce conflicts, dissatisfaction and low job performance. An important requirement for satisfaction of employees possibly be from the management side to engage them in work as well as produce supportive environment in the organization [8]. The management should have considerations about workforce feelings and behavior at the time of performing work [9].

If the motivation level regarding retention becomes low inside firm and the workforce is not getting desired results from a firm so their performance may be interrupted, consequently they are more likely to leave the firm [10,11]. Attainment of organizational required job performance by workforce produces organizational performance in a competitive environment. Without workforce job satisfaction and assistance, it is difficult to check that HR practices are developing the workforce or creating a burden on them [12]. Satisfaction and motivation may enhance the capabilities of management as well as employees, where the organization develop their human resources through training as per needs prior to crises circumstances [13].

The valuable relationship between motivation and job performance has been studied in previous researches [14,15]. However, few researches established relationships amongst motivation and job satisfaction. Organizations are not getting desired and satisfactory job performances from their employees; on the other hand, employees are not getting the desired job satisfaction level from organizations. So, there is a need to explore job satisfaction in the context of mediation between motivation and job performance [16,17]. Even management's behavior had not been studied extensively in previous researches in the context of job performance. Although studies regarding management's behavior and motivation produce valuable improvements in human resources of developed countries, but still a lot of research work is required in developing countries especially in Pakistan.

Moreover, in previous findings the influence of management’s behavior on employees job performance has been ignored [18,19]. Hence, the second aim of the current study is to fill out the gap between management's behavior and job performance, by using job satisfaction as mediating variable, with the help of other independent variable motivation. The self consistency theory supports this research work because this theory focuses on the importance of the self (employees) in the discipline of thoughts (mental satisfaction) and ideas (rewards) [20]. According to the self consistency theory an employee uses self-helping measures to maintain consistency in work. Employees need motives (mental satisfaction and rewards) that maintain constancy on their job performance by themselves.

Problem Statement

The business organizations seek to provide the workforce with the satisfactory and helpful working environment for better job performance. Most of the employees in organizations are not giving an effective job performance. Due to these inefficient job performance, the firms are not taking desired results. The performance of the workforce should be enhanced by satisfying the workforce with effective methods. These methods may be effective and positive management’s behavior and valuable motivation for workforce. These methods can give greater job satisfaction for the workforce. These methods should be applied as straightforward enough and can be easily understood by all workers. The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of management’s behavior and motivation on job performance. It also aims to identify the mediating role of job satisfaction.

Research Objectives

Particularly the objectives of this research work are to.

1. Describe the value and importance of effective management’s behavior in the enterprises for better job performances of the workforce.

2. Observe if there is an association between motivation and job performance.

3. Identify, whether job satisfaction mediates the relationship of job performance and the Independent variables such as management’s behavior and motivation.

Significance of the Study

There is a competitive edge for every type of enterprise to produce desired and satisfactory job performance of the workforce. The scope is an implementation of valuable practices for workforce to take desired results (performances) also gets responses from them called satisfaction. The considerations about satisfactory working conditions and other vital benefits such as; management, employee relationships and effective motivation can tend to enhance overall performance of the organization. A basic necessity for every organization is to take desired performance, which can be achieved from employee satisfaction.

Contribution

This study will contribute to the body of literature and research methodology. It will also be beneficial for policy makers, researchers and academic sector. From literature perspective, the findings of this study will redound to the benefits of a business sector that in the modern era the job performance of the workforce plays an important role in the overall performance of organizations. For policy makers, the greater demand for a highly skilled workforce with strong experience justifies the need for more effective methods, to keep the workforce more satisfy on their work for valuable job performance. This will help the policy makers to make policies about satisfactory motivation and management ethics for the workforce. For the researchers, the study will help them explore critical areas in the employee’s job performances. For academic sector, the recommended approach derived from the results of this study will enable to get better, desired and satisfactory job performance of the workforce. For methodology, the management will be guided on what should be emphasized by them in the businesses to improve employee performance.

Literature Review and Framework

Job Performance

Social exchange theory is about the relationships of people where employees pay more energy for their work, but they want to get mental, social and psychological rewards from the organization [21]. All the relationships possess give and take perspective; although the balance of this exchange is not always equal [21]. This theory explains the employee’s feelings about relationships with employers as depending on perceptions of the balance between what employees put into the relationship, what they get out of it, the kind of relationship workforce deserve and the chances of having a better relationship with other organizations [22].

According to Mark, Gerard and Ravi [23] the managers should also know about the needs of the employees and set performance goals for fulfillment of organizational objectives. Especially in banking sector, time limit for the job is nine to five, but most of the workforce is engaged by management for extra time almost daily. This produces a low satisfaction level, mental disturbance among the workforce also has negative impacts on their performance [24]. Individual job performance benefits both the firm and the individual himself. Effective performance of work like the accomplishment of tasks creates job satisfaction [25,26]. Robbins and Judge [27] argued that the leadership should create suitable environment for the followers, to improve their level of awareness regarding their needs and encouragement [28]. This realization to job satisfaction by workforce creates valuable effectiveness in employees [29]. The enterprises should struggle to establish the atmosphere for better job performance. Strong and valuable relationships between workforce and organization can create effective satisfaction and performance [30].

Management’s Behavior and Job Performance

According to Kahn’s theory about work engagement the relation of employee should be good for the organization because he or she is investing his or her qualities and skills in the organization. Employees can invest better skills if they are satisfied with their job [31]. The requirements for worker engagement may be supervisor’s behaviors and suitable work environment [31]. Work engagement is about to achieve an organization’s strategic goals by creating the conditions for the workforce by managing to thrive, for each staff member, manager and executive to be fully switched on in their jobs so as to deliver their best efforts in the best interest of the organization [15].

According to Mart and William [32] positive management’s behavior can produce a disciplined workforce. The universal problem for workforce is to confront stress created by management’s behavior [33]. Adaptive style from employee side is an impressive movement for management, produces creativity in both employees and management as well as on the other hand the necessity for production of adaptive style maybe based upon management support [34]. The organization cannot get better performance in the presence of a stressful environment [35]. Fair attitude of management in organizations, where task boundaries are clearly defined for workforce can enhance their job performance [36]. Scrawny communication, stressful atmosphere and lengthy work-time created by the management will have a negative relationship with employee satisfaction and the organization [37].

To solve the problems, employees are given certain goals, therefore the managers should set the goals and solve the problems in a standardize manner for better satisfaction and performance [38]. Raza, Anjum, and Zia [30] argued that the capacity of emotional, mental, social and physical activities practiced during various stages of individual (manager’s) life and prejudiced by society, morals, genetics, values, culture and ethics is called management’s behavior. Manager’s communication skills play an important role for improvement of job performance [39]. The behavioral language of management of the organization creates satisfaction as well as performance [40].

Motivation and Job Performance

According to the human relations management theory, the employees want to become helpful to their management for performance and growth of the organization [41]. If people get valuable encouragement from management, they can produce effective results because of motivation and mental satisfaction. Top-level management needs to understand workforce as humans with social, interpersonal and emotional needs [42]. Expectancy theory states that employees want to perform something special for organizational productivity and be careful about the results of their performance [43]. Management experience from different nations produces essential behavior along with motivation, performance and satisfaction [44].

Raza, Anjum and Zia [30] found that the spirit at the workplace is a fundamental constituent in any type of enterprise, because it has a positive role on employee job performance. According to Anthony [45] there are great impacts of career development and promotion rates on job performance of the workforce. If the workforce understands their job duties and engaged themselves in their jobs by creative activities so they will become motivated [15]. Motivation produces an interesting and a significant work environment, which can help the management to take valuable improvements in the workforce as job performance [46]. Motivation of the workforce has a vital role in business [47]. It is necessary for organizations to motivate those employees, give some comfortable working hours to resolve their family problems and any advance payments [36].

Decision making involvement and work appreciations for employees will develop passion, interest and motivation [30]. Coleman, Maheswaran and Pinder [48] found that pleasant feelings and thoughts of employees are factors of job performance. As Kamalian Yaghoubi and Moloudi [49] suggest that motivation directs the efforts of employees towards organizational direction. To acquire effective job performances from employees for an organization, it is necessary to get valuable talent from the local, national and international markets and its’ responsibility of management to retain the talent in the original form of effective behavior [50].

Job Satisfaction and Performance

According to Thomas [51], relations between workforce and employers can play a vital role for organizational success. Moral development of employees is necessary concern for management because they want to get performance with satisfaction; managers can do this by valuable and effective behavioral foundations [52]. The employees, which are satisfied with their organizations, create bonds with the organization [29]. The organization should produce positive approaches, where the workforce understands commitment, confidence, trust and self-motivation towards the policies and systems of an organization [30].

Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors influence job satisfaction. Extrinsic factors are related to job environment such as compensation, policies, job security, social relations and work environment, whereas intrinsic factors are related to job characteristics such as opportunities for promotion, recognition, authority and achievements [53]. The communication conflicts between managers and employees creates low rate of job satisfaction and this produces a low rate of job performance from the employee side [39]. The employees who are happy with their jobs will even give extra time for their job activities [14].

Framework

It is declared as a necessity for managers to provide clear and transparent work assignments for employees to increase motivational factors for their satisfaction and valuable performance [54]. There is a significant relationship between motivation and job performance [55]. Shmailan [16] stated that job satisfaction, valuable job performance and engagement in business through motivation are declared as three basic success factors. There are a number of ways to examine the concept of job performance, which includes the skills and abilities of employees to achieve targets and do jobs as per standards [56-58].

Generally, the job satisfaction is an indicator of workers’ pleasure and feelings about their work [17]. Motivation is a role-playing concern for organizations; it produces goals achievement and employee productivity [59]. The managers have grand work pressure, therefore the pressure may be transmitted to employees [60]. Highly satisfied employees love their work and environmental justice, which give them positive features like good pay, security, variety, challenges, social relations and autonomy [14].

Hypotheses

H-1: Management’s behavior in the organization has a positive impact on job satisfaction of the workforce.

H-2: Motivation practice has a positive impact on employee job satisfaction.

H-3: Management’s behavior in the organization has a positive impact on job performance of the workforce.

H-4: Motivation practice has a positive impact on employee job performance.

H-5: Job satisfaction has a positive impact on employee job performance.

H-6: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between management’s behavior and job performance.

H-7: Job satisfaction mediates the relationship between motivation and job performance.

Methodology

Population and Sampling

This research work was carried out in Pakistan’s banking sector because this sector covering both public and private sectors and most of the employees have business related educations. All white-collar employees were selected as target respondents, which include line managers, human resource managers, middle level managers, branch managers and employees. Another selection criterion for the employees who have minimum two years’ experience in the banking sector. The reasons behind selection criteria are professionalism, experience and practices. Moreover, they also have awareness about the value of these practices because of the nature of their jobs. Pakistan’s banking sector (Table 1) consists of 35 commercial banks (5 public sector commercial banks, 5 Islamic banks, 17 private commercial banks, 4 foreign banks and 4 specialized banks). According to the official website of the State Bank of Pakistan there are 777 bank branches working in twin cities as Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

Table 1: Population.

Type of Bank Name of Bank Total Branches in Pakistan No. of Branches in Rawalpindi and Islamabad Approximate No. of White Color Staff in Rawalpindi and Islamabad Branches
="5">Public Sector First Women Bank Limited 43 07 28
The Bank of Khyber 131 05 20
National Bank of Pakistan 1406 53 212
The Bank of Punjab 405 28 112
Sindh Bank Limited 242 09 36
Islamic Banks Bank Islami Pakistan Limited 176 15 60
Albaraka Bank (Pakistan) Limited 121 09 36
Meezan Bank Limited 551 51 204
Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Limited 200 18 72
MCB Islamic Bank Limited 06 00 00
Private Banks Samba Bank Limited 34 05 20
JS Bank Limited 243 25 100
Allied Bank Limited 1048 91 364
Burj Bank Limited 74 02 08
Summit Bank Limited 191 14 56
MCB Bank Limited 1247 51 204
Askari Bank Limited 391 60 240
NIB Bank Limited 171 18 72
Bank Alfalah Limited 630 64 256
SILK Bank Limited 88 13 52
Bank Al-Habib Limited 420 17 68
Soneri Bank Limited 266 17 68
Standard Chartered Bank (Pakistan) Limited 101 19 76
Faysal Bank Limited 281 25 100
United Bank Limited 1311 44 176
Habib Bank Limited 1663 89 356
Habib Metropolitan Bank Limited 237 17 68
Foreign Banks The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Limited – Pakistan Operations 01 00 00
CITI Bank N.A. – Pakistan Operations 03 01 04
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited 03 01 04
Deutsche Bank AG– Pakistan Operations 03 01 04
Specialized Banks Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan 02 01 04
The Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd. 151 01 04
SME Bank Limited 13 02 08
Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited 440 04 16
Total 35 12293 777 3108

For calculation of sample size, an adapted formula “S=X2 NP (1-P)/d2 (N-1)+X2 P (1-P)” was used in this study [61]. The population size is approximately 3108 employees so, according to the formula the sample size was 342. Sampling procedures in the social and behavioral sciences are often divided into two groups such as probability and purposive sampling. Probability sampling techniques are primarily used in quantitatively oriented studies and involves in selecting a relatively large number of units from a population, or from specific subgroups (strata) of a population, in a random manner where the probability of inclusion for every member of the population is determinable [62]. In this study, multiple probability sampling techniques were used. Cluster sampling was used; where employees of all commercial bank branches located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan) were selected as cluster randomly. Stratified sampling was used where unit of interest is; employees of banking sector who have minimum two years’ service were selected as strata.

Instrument and Measures

All the questions were extracted from already developed questionnaires, which were published in different articles. All the questions regarding each variable were designed as a five point Likert scale.

To measure management’s behavior, eight questions were extracted from Vikas [63]. The sample items are “Management believes that employees are the most important asset of our firm, and, Management encourages creativity, innovation, and continuous improvement.”

Ten item scale of Maduka and Okafor [64] was used to measure motivation. Example items are, “My Company normally encourages us to further education, and, working environment is friendly.”

To measure job satisfaction, ten questions were extracted from Scott and Peter [65]. Sample statements are, “I receive recognition for a job well done, and I believe management is concerned about me.”

Ten questions were extracted from Masood to measure Job performance. Sample statements are, “Quantity of our employees’ work output has improved in last five years, and Most of the employees achieved organizational goals of last 5 years.”

Procedure

The researcher had distributed 342 questionnaires in different bank branches located in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in the first visit and gave gifts hampers to respondents. The researcher had given briefings about questionnaire to the bank employees also told them that these will only be used for research purpose. After one week in the second visit, the researcher had collected 256 questionnaires. Therefore, the response rate was 74.85%. The response rates resembling 60% for the majority research be supposed to be the objective for researchers [66]. The process of analysis was carried out with the SPSS 17.0 version for windows. Among the analytical techniques, reliability, validity, descriptive analysis, correlation and multiple regression analysis were run to measure the impact and relationship amongst the variables.

Data Analysis and Results

Reliability Assessment

The Cronbach’s alpha is a gauge for internal regularities of items, which together cover up the precise factor. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient is a statistical application for internal reliability and assessment, the values ranging from zero to one, and related high values point out better reliability. The researchers frequently use 0.6 as the acceptable level [67]. The results show that Chronbach’s alpha varied from 0.774 to 0.848 as the values of management’s behavior 0.774, motivation 0.835, job satisfaction 0.798 and job performance 0.848. Therefore, these statistics findings reveal that the internal consistency of constructs is acceptable.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a procedure frequently employed to authenticate a prior hypothesis regarding the relationship among the set of measurement items. Applying this particular technique, the researchers were able to know about how best all the latent variables of the equal construct relate to each other [68]. The values for management’s behavior ranges from 0.490 to 0.758, motivation from 0.538 to 0.748, job satisfaction from 0.497 to 0.690 and job performance 0.530 to 0.727.

Demographics

The sample consists of 22.7% of female respondents and 77.3% of male respondents. Most of the respondents were in the age category 21-30, 38.3% respondents. 30.5% were in age category 31-40 and 31.2% in age category 41-50. 55.5% respondents were married and 44.5% were unmarried. 47.7% of respondents had a degree of Graduation, Master degree holders had percentage of 40.6, 9.8% were MS/M. Phil and 1.9% were PhDs. 37.5% had 2-4 years experience, 31.6% had 6-10 years of service, 23.4% of respondents had experience of 4-6 years and 7.4% had more than ten years’ experience. 42.6% were Tellers, 33.2% were Line Managers, 20.7% were Branch Managers and 3.5% were HR Managers.

Descriptive and Correlation Analysis

The Table 2 specifies the descriptive Figure 1, the value of the mean of motivation was 3.35 and the standard deviation was 0.71, which specify that the divergence of data as of the mean of motivation. The rate about the mean for management’s behavior is 3.57 and the standard deviation is 0.66. The mean score of job satisfaction was 3.49 and the standard deviation was 0.65. The mean of Job performance was 3.61 and the standard deviation was 0.65.

internet-banking-and-commerce-independent

Figure 1: Correlation between independent variables, mediating variable and dependent variable.

Table 2: Correlation Analysis (Statistics).

Variable Mean SD 1=MB 4=M 5=JS 6=JP
Management’s Behavior 3.57 .66 1      
Motivation 3.35 .71 .697** 1    
Job Satisfaction 3.49 .65 .712** .764** 1  
Job Performance 3.61 .65 .690** .725** .761** 1

The Table 2 also displays the results of correlation. The correlation between management’s behavior and job performance is (0.69; p<0.01); motivation and job performance (0.73; p<0.01); management’s behavior and job satisfaction (0.71; p<0.01); motivation and job satisfaction (0.764; p<0.01) and job satisfaction and job performance (0.761; p<0.01), which present the positive and significant correlation at the p<0.05 level.

Regression Analysis (Hypothesis Testing)

In this study, four-step technique was used [69]. The first step used employees’ job performance as the dependent (base) variable in the regression equation, and management’s behavior, and motivation as the predictors. The second step used job satisfaction as the base variable and management’s behavior and motivation as the predictors. The third step used job performance as the base variable and management’s behavior, motivation and job satisfaction as predictors. The fourth step was to match the first regression model with the third regression model to recognize consequence of the mediating variable.

In Step 1 (Table 3), the results obtained from regression analysis using job performance to be the criterion variable, and management’s behavior and motivation as a predictor. This step exposed that management’s behavior and motivation were significantly linked to employees’ job performance (R2=0.652, p<0.001, F=90.56). This result determines that there is an effect, which is prerequisite for mediation step. Taking individual independent variable in the Step 1 (Table 3), management’s behavior and motivation were positively and significantly linked to job performance.

Table 3: Results of Regression Analysis.

First Regression(Dependent/base variable as Job Performance)
Predictors Standardized Coefficients Beta t Sig
Management’s behavior .165 2.360 .000
Motivation .342 5.167 .000
Second Regression (Dependent/base variable as Job Satisfaction)
Management’s behavior .186 2.803 .001
Motivation .383 6.067 .000
Mediation Analysis (Third Regression)
Variables Beta Beta Change
Management’s behavior .101 0.064*
Motivation .211 0.131*
Job satisfaction .342*  
Consolidated Model Summary
Model R Square Adjusted R Square F-Value ΔF-Value
1 0.652 0.645 90.559 90.559
2 0.685 0.678 104.79 104.79
3 0.689 0.681 85.171 85.171

In Step 2, the criterion variable was job satisfaction and management’s behavior and motivation as the predictors. Overall, management’s behavior and motivation were considerably related to job satisfaction (R2=0.685, F=104.8, p<0.001). This step demonstrated that the antecedent variables are associated with the mediating variable. Looking at each independent construct (Step 2, Table 3), management’s behavior and motivation were considerably associated with job satisfaction.

In the third step, the researcher again carried out regression analysis, by taking job performance as the criterion variable and management’s behavior, motivation and job satisfaction to be as predictors (Table 3). It was noticed that job satisfaction was considerably linked to job performance when controlling for management’s behavior and motivation. At the same time as for individual predictors of management’s behavior and motivation turned out to be less considerably linked to job performance.

Management’s behavior and motivation were significantly associated with job satisfaction in step number two. It supports hypothesis number one and two that management’s behavior and motivation in the organization has positive and significant impacts on job satisfaction. The result of step number three supports hypothesis number five where job satisfaction is positively linked to job performance. To again acquire confirmation about the mediation role of job satisfaction, the model of Sobel was used. The statistically proved significance of this effect of mediation (Mediated affect=Management’s behavior=0.064* and Motivation=0.131*, p<0.01) was found. Therefore, the reciprocal link between management’s behavior, motivation and job performance is completely mediated by job satisfaction.

Discussion

This research work is vital in relation about the investigation of the antecedents of job satisfaction such as, management’s behavior and motivation and consequence as job performance. The parameters are given in the self consistency theory, this research work finds that job satisfaction proves to be a key mediating variable between management’s behavior and motivation, and job performance.

Management’s behavior is a vital part of job performance, which comes interested in view as significant ingredient and factor in job performance. The present results may possibly illuminate the reality that behavior by management is sensible and supplies a perfect description of their genuine job performance. If employees consider that behavior by management is used in point of reality by the enterprises are equitable, impartial, and according to employee's prospect, this will confirm the way toward effective job performance.

The findings of this research are consistent with Kalkavan and Katrinli [18], who found that managerial coaching behaviors had a momentary constructive connection with effective job performances. Furthermore, the findings of the current study are consistent with Ellinger, Ellinger and Keller [19], who expounds that, in actuality; the improvements in job performance are considered as the primary output of effective and organized management’s behavior. Moral development of employees is necessary concern for management because they want to get performance with satisfaction and motivation, managers can do this by valuable and effective behavioral foundations for employees [52].

A further feasible illumination of motivation is an indication for an agreeable environment inside the organization. The findings of the current study are consistent with the findings of various researchers like Omollo and, Kuranchie-Mensah, Amponsah-Tawiah [70,71], which present, if the employees are satisfied with motivation practices, then they exhibit the strong and valuable feelings regarding job performance. Conflicts between employees as well as management may cause low performance from both sides, positive management’s behavior can resolve these before the occurrence [72].

Consequently, the findings of various researchers substantiate that if organizations are already applying deep-rooted motivation practices and devote time and capital for balanced and unremitting motivation, this then shows the direction towards the job performance [73]. By following the acquired results, these will not just the benefits of employees, but amplification and growth of performance, and it will finally shrink the deadlock, turnover ratio, and misconception. Thus, employees would go through their institutions like home environment.

Satisfied employees with their management to produce a valuable job performance as compared the employees having stress from their management [74]. Organizations need to maintain employee job satisfaction with the help of their management because these workers are reliable and noteworthy forward planners for job performance improvements [75]. The conclusions are consistent with the findings of Masihabadi, Rajaei, Koloukhi and Parsian [76], job satisfaction to mediate the relationship between management’s behavior and job performance. Thus, the findings, grant support to outcomes; satisfied employee presents valuable role to enhance job performance.

Moreover, the findings are persistent with the findings of Indermun and Saheed Bayat and, Shmailan [16,29] i.e. job satisfaction mediates the relationship between motivation and job performance. Hence, it is confirmed that a satisfied worker increases the performance. Dignity, respect, appreciation, courage and recognition produces an internal force (motivation) in employees also satisfied them, so the organization can get better job performance [77]. Motivation is an employee’s concentration (try hard to attain objectives), trend (correct objective) and determination (satisfaction) of hard work to accomplish the explicit intentions (job performance) [78].

Theoretical/Managerial Implications

Theoretically, this research work has offered a significant contribution towards the present literature. The research work novelties to mature a framework on management’s behavior, motivation and job satisfaction, which enlighten the impact on job performance. Within this particular model, management’s behavior accelerates job performance. As per result, via statistical tests the intact hypotheses of current research work were accepted. As framework supports to define that, how motivation accelerates job performance, alternatively which type of organization would acquire advantages in terms of job performance underneath job satisfaction of employees. This research work not only agreements solid proof of the account that management’s behavior can affect job performance, but also incorporates the gratitude about this particular sort of relationship progress in positive ways.

The banking sector should confidently check the needs of employees and formulate a professional endeavor to implement and improve policies for employees to build up friendly environment and social relations with organizational management. If the banking sector has educated employees concerning expertise, learning abilities and innovative knowledge, so those employees would have chances to execute their knowledge and skills for valuable job performance as well as for departmental and organizational improvements. Therefore, those workers should be rewarded, trained, promoted, motivated and satisfied with the management. A strong communication and feedback system between employee and supervisor should be created by the organization because this attempt produce interest in them and this interest create motivation and job satisfaction, thus, the approximate result will be better job performance. This research work suggests that the banking sector should have awareness about the desires of employees in work considerations, such as how to do the work, which time is suitable for particular work, supervisor’s support and suitable accessories need. If the desire of the employee is able to accept in organizational context, so the supervisor should take care of those considerations.

Future Research Recommendations

The present research work was outlined as to inspect the direct and mediating relationships amongst the variables, so additional research works are required to fill up the systematic investigation practical gap like moderating variables. Furthermore, other variables such as job security, procedural justice, human capital, age groups, empowerment practices and motivation may also be measured for future research works as mediators.

It is necessary for the organizations to care about reactions and opinions of the employees about organizational environment and management. Take some interviews of employees in a friendly manner and use a systematic approach for data collection about employees. Because with the help of this approach the organization can get information in time, there will be some inner satisfaction for employees and creative environment.

It is also recommended that care must be given about the future needs of employees for job satisfaction as well as job performance. Therefore, in future, other independent variables may occur for performance and the future researchers should use those particular independent factors for job performance to conduct their research works.

Conclusion

The basic purpose of this research work was to confirm the relationship of management’s behavior and motivation on job performance of employees as well as the mediating role of job satisfaction. Based on the results of this research work, succeeding conclusions could be haggard. Though, the results from this research work demonstrated that both independent variables are shown as the ways for job performance, which will escort to be satisfied and retained to valuable workers within enterprise. Management’s behavior and motivation give the awareness in the expression of valuable proposals for the banking sector to practice for useful emotional association with the enterprise. It is proved that the job performance of employees in any type and nature of the enterprise is robustly found on job satisfaction of employees. Consequently, the significance of job satisfaction for the success and effectiveness of the employee’s job performance in any business must not be disregarded.

References

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