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Evaluating the Impact of Promotion Price, Product Quality, Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Repeating Purchase Incentives (Case Study: Amiran Chain Stores)

Shekoufeh Ghezelbash*

Master of Business Administration, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran

Hussein Khodadadi

Department of Management, Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Shekoufeh Ghezelbash
Master of Business Administration
Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran
Tel: +9866949341
E-mail: shirshahialireza4@gmail.com

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of price promotion on evaluating the quality of customer and repeating purchase incentives. This research is an applied study in terms of objective, it is also considered as a causal study. Field study and questionnaire were used to evaluate hypotheses and statistical analysis of data. The population of this research includes customers of Amiran chain stores in Karaj. Finally 300 questionnaires have been completed using appropriate sampling. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling and LISREL software were used. According to the analysis of data, the results indicate that the price promotion affects on the product quality, service quality, satisfaction and repeating purchase incentives in Amiran chain stores in Karaj. The product quality and service quality significantly affect satisfaction of customers in Amiran chain stores in Karaj; and satisfaction has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives in Amiran chain stores in Karaj.

Keywords

Price Promotion; Product Quality; Service Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Repeating Purchase Incentives; Amiran Chain Stores

Introduction

Expansion of production companies, production in large quantities, excessive imports, globalization of markets and economic development, without increasing production is not possible. Increasing production leads to sales issues related to consumer markets. Expansion of firms, market competition and marketing issues are so complicated that it is difficult to be able to simply sell the goods. In competitive environments, managers need tools of marketing. One of the most important tools is sales promotion, which variety is used in various industries. Important element of the promotion mix includes advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. Customer Relationship ring is promotion. Modern marketing is more than just good products, good pricing and customer accessibility to goods. Companies need to connect with the customers and what should be the subject of this communication should be laid on the chance. One of the marketing mix elements mentioned as an essential element in promoting the marketing process plays; In this case, one of the tools that can encourage consumers to try and buy these products to promote sales [1].

Among the components of the marketing mix, price is the only factor that leads to revenue. The price of the most flexible marketing mix factors known; it can be quickly changed. Price for the product or service is something people will pay for it. Price includes time, energy and money. Price includes dividends paid and commissioning as well as cost of goods sold, payments and fares [2]. One of the achievements made in connection with the sale of products, strategies, and advance price. The price promotion strategy is applied in order to attract customers and increase sales in the food service industry; these strategies include reducing the price per purchase more, or increasing the number in exchange for a fixed price which enhance the value and create an economic incentive to purchase. Companies usually use this type of promotional measures for improvement of the customer, quirky customers, motivate price sensitive buyers, upsell re-use or add value. This type of action could lead to double sales in the short-term [3].

But there are concerns that this relationship is that, although such measures in relation to price instant profits for the company to follow immediately, But is it possible to assess the consumer in the long run to affect the motivation repurchase; because the positive or negative evaluation of the product or service you are repeatedly subject to such measures may affect the customers' attitude towards the quality of the product or service. Therefore, research on the impact of price promotional measures on customer evaluations of the quality of the product, service or brand has been concerned. Therefore, this study seeks to answer this question: Does price promotion affect the customers' evaluation on quality and repeat purchase incentives in Amiran chain stores in Karaj.

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of price promotion on product quality, service quality, it also determines the effect on product quality, satisfaction, service quality, satisfaction, repeating purchase incentives.

The theoretical framework is the base of research that is the foundation of all design and research projects and developed a complete network between the variables that are marked with the source and literature review. Top quality product or service can lead to increased satisfaction, customer retention, market share and increase profit. The relationship between service quality, customer satisfaction and its impact on customer behavior has been largely considered in the studies. Fu and Parks concluded that perception of Food Quality has a significant relationship with the motivation to repeat purchase. Shanklyn states that customer satisfaction can be a mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and behavioral motivations. Ramos and Franco believe that price promotion has a positive impact on perceived quality and brand evaluation. Some researchers also suggest that there is no relationship between price and repetitive behaviors to purchase the brand. In view of Shen, price promotion has the mediation effect of on promoting loyalty. Promotional measures price is an important tool in attracting consumers to buy new situation. Based on the research Ortmeyer and Huber, further negative impact on quality assessment and motivation repurchase price is limited and is less studied. Lemon and Nowlis showed that the price promotion is in connection with popular brands which are less profitable than well-known brands. Ragobir and Kourfman studied the effect of price promotion on the valuation of the brand; and they found that customers believe that brands which are several times subject to price promotion strategies are weaker or less quality than other brands in the same industry [3]. According to the mentioned content and research, the theoretical framework of research has been formed by Huang, et al. [3]; and it shows the relationship between the price promotion and the perceived quality of the product inventory, customer satisfaction and repeat purchase incentives in the form of theoretical models (Figure 1).

internet-banking-conceptual-model-graph

Figure 1: Conceptual model graph [3].

Theoretical Definition

Sale promotion is the collection of information activities, so that after a communication loop and communicated traits, qualities, benefits, etc., affect the buyer, increase demand for the product. In this process, the consumer will first try to be aware of the existence of a certain product or service, then, repeating messages, either spoken or in writing or images via different media, specific product name or firm and registered in the mind of the consumer replacement, and finally consumer shopping behavior is influenced [4].

Operational definition: Sale promotion, it is the score received by the indicators of price promotion. Inventory of Huang, et al. [3] was used. The questions 1 to 4 of the questionnaire are about this important variable.

Theoretical definition: Quality of service is sustained attention to meet the needs and demands of our customers. Parasorman believes that quality of service is: the difference between customer expectations and perceptions of services received [5].

Operational definition of quality services: it is the score received by the indicators of quality of service. Inventory of Huang, et al. [3] was used. The questions 8 to 10 of the questionnaire are about this important variable.

Theoretical definition: Product quality, the ability of a product in meeting the goal that is produced with the least possible cost. In other words, the extent to which set of character features, requirements or satisfy the desires [6].

Operational definition: quality of the product, it is the score received by the indicators of the product quality index. Inventory of Huang et al. [3] was used. The questions 5 to 7 of the questionnaire are about this important variable.

Theoretical definition: Customer satisfaction Cutler as the degree to which actual performance of a company to meet customer expectations, defines.

Operational definition: Customer satisfaction, it is the score received by the indicators of customer satisfaction index. Inventory Huang et al. [3] was used. The questions 11 to 14 of the questionnaire are about this important variable.

Theoretical definition: Repeat repurchases repeating repurchase process of goods and certain services from a store and mainly due to the experience after purchase [7].

Operational definition: repurchase, it is the score received by the indicators of the repurchase.

Inventory of Huang, et al. [3] was used. The questions 14 to 17 of the questionnaire are about this important variable.

Research on consumer behavior has been the subject domain. Geographic scope of this study was Amiran chain stores in Karaj. The time span of the study period was winter 2015 and spring 2016. This research study was causal in nature and placed in a class because the researcher is trying to advance to assess the impact of price on assessing the quality of their customer and repeating purchase incentives and in the path of structural equations statistical technique that is an appropriate way to investigate the causal relation between variables. This research is also based on the purpose of the research which is an applied research.

In this study, the data collection needed to test the hypothesis and field method is used. In this study, a questionnaire was used to collect the data needed for the study. To measure the five item, likert scale questionnaire was used. In this study, the validity of the logical method and the content directory is used. In this case, the experts studied the quantity and quality of the questions. The initial study was designed to evaluate the questionnaire and to see Professors and experts were concerned; questionnaire survey was distributed to a total of 28 numbers in the community. Comments Respondents were collected and designed the Question. The final questionnaire was designed to distribute on a larger scale.

In the present study, Cronbach's alpha reliability of the questionnaire scale method is used. At this stage, 30 questionnaires were distributed to assess the reliability The SPSS software was used to validate, and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was determined to 0.808 that this amount is more than (0.7). Cronbach's alpha for each of the variables is presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Cronbach's alpha for each of the variables.

Cronbch's alpha Questions Variable
0/828 4 to 1 promotion price
0/721 7 to 5 Product quality
0/742 10 to 8 Service quality
0/827 13 to 11 Customer satisfaction
0/793 17 to 14 Repeat purchase Incentives

Determining the sample size and sampling: In this study, given that the structural equation techniques used to analyze the information, the following formula is used to determine the sample size:

5q ≤ n ≤ 15q.

Because of the questionnaire of 17 questions, at least the sample must be between 85 and 255 people. The questionnaires were distributed at this stage using appropriate sampling finally 300 questionnaires have been completed.

Data Analysis Methods: In this section, information that is collected using questionnaires, the data will be analyzed. Accordingly, this research will be approved or rejected.

Descriptive statistics: researcher to identify the characteristics of the study population studied in the first part of the questionnaire, questions have been proposed on topics (gender, age, education). The information obtained in this area is presented in the form of frequency tables and graphs.

The results show that 7/51 percent of respondents were male and 3/44 percent of respondents are men (Table 2).

Table 2: Sex status.

Percent Frequency Sex
51/7 155 Male
44/3 133 Female
4/0 12 unanswered
100/0 300 Total

4% of them also have an answer to this question.

The results show that 9.3 percent ages less than 30 years, the percentage of 30 to 40 years 33.1, 37.1 and 17.3 percent 40 to 50 percent more than 50 years. Also 3% of respondents did not answer the question (Table 3).

Table 3: Age status.

Percent Frequency Age
 9/3 28 Less than 30 years
 33/1 99 30 to 40 years
 37/3 112 40 to 50 years
 17/3 52 More than 50 years
 3/0 9 Unanswered
 100/0 300 Total

The result shows that 35.4% have a degree of diploma or less, 12.3% have associate degree, bachelor's degree in 34.7%, 3.14 percent have a master's degree and higher. 3.3% did not answer the question as well (Table 4).

Table 4: The educational status.

Percent Frequency Education
 35/4 106 Diploma or less
 12/3 37 Associate Degree
 34/7 104 Bachelor
 14/3 43 Master's degree or higher
 3/3 10 unanswered
 100/0 300 Total

According to the results, the index chi-square/degrees of freedom equal to (1.93). As this amount is less than the standard; so it is approved. Fitness index to estimate the root mean square errors (RMSEA) is considered as a good indicator. The index for this study that is obtained (0.056) is relatively good. The index of standard root-meanresiduals (RMR) is also equal to (0.043) which is less than 0.08 and it is approved (Table 5).

Table 5: Index value.

Index Value in the first Model Standard value Abbreviation First index
 1/39 Less than 3 X2/df Chi-square to degrees of freedom
 6/650 Less than 0.8 RMSEA The root mean square error of estimate
 6/649 Less than 08/0 RMR The average remaining roots
 6/30 More than 0.9 NFI Normalized fit index
 6/39 More than 0.9 NNFI Not normal fit index
 6/39 More than 0.9 CFI Comparative fit index or matching
 6/39 More than 0.9 IFI Incremental fit index
 6/35   RFI  
 6/39 More than 0.8 GFI Goodness of fit index
 6/93 More than 0.8 AGFI Adjusted goodness of fit index

The calculated norm for fitting indicators (NFI), not fitting the norm (NNFI), comparative fit index or matching (CFI) and incremental fit index (IFI) are more than 0.9, as these indices respectively equaled (0.96, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.98). Since the index is greater than 0.9, it is fitted, the standard for goodness of fit index (GFI) and index-adjusted goodness of fit (AGFI) are more than 0.8; as the index respectively equaled (0.92) and (0.89) and complies with the standard.

Data Analysis and Test Research Hypotheses

Testing the research hypotheses has been done using structural equation modeling (Figure 2).

internet-banking-statistic-model-coefficients

Figure 2: Diagram of t-statistic for the model coefficients.

Diagram of t coefficients shows structural and measurement models for hypotheses. In the next diagram, standardized coefficients for each of the study variables are presented. This again shows the correlation between each variable observer (RP) and factors related to it (Figure 3).

internet-banking-standardized-coefficients-structural

Figure 3: Diagram of standardized coefficients structural and measurement models.

As is clear in charts variable (advance price) as independent variables, and variables (product quality, service quality, and customer satisfaction, repeat purchase incentives) are as dependent variables. Acronyms LISREL output variables are presented in the diagrams that advance the price (PP), product quality (PQ), service quality (SQ), and customer satisfaction (SA), repeat purchase incentives (RPI) has been proposed.

The first hypothesis test: promoting price has a significant effect on product quality.

The null hypothesis: the promotion price has a positive and significant effect on product quality.

The research hypothesis: promoting price has a significant and positive effect on product quality (Table 6).

Table 6: The result of the first hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/38 5/77 Gamma

T statistic is used to study the effect of price promotion on the product quality. AS Tstatistic equaled to 4.70 which is significant, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed. It has been cleared that price promotion has a significant effect on the product quality. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, price promotion positively affects the product quality, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Testing the second hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on the service quality.

Null hypothesis: The price promotion does not have a significant effect on the service quality.

Research hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on the service quality (Table 7).

Table 7: Results of the second hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/35 4/70 Gamma

T-statistic is used to study the effect of price promotion on the service quality. AS T statistic equaled to 4.70 which is significant, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed. It has been cleared that price promotion has a significant effect on the service quality. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, price promotion positively affects the service quality, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Testing the third hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on satisfaction. Null hypothesis: The price promotion does not have a significant effect on satisfaction. Research hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on satisfaction (Table 8).

Table 8: Results of the third hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/32 4/28 Gamma

T statistic is used to study the effect of price promotion on satisfaction. AS T-statistic equaled to 4.28 which is significant, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed. It has been cleared that satisfaction has a significant effect on satisfaction. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, price promotion positively affects the satisfaction, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Testing the fourth hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Null hypothesis: The price promotion does not have a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Research hypothesis: The price promotion has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase (Table 9).

Table 9: Results of the fourth hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/32 4/28 Gamma

T-statistic is used to study the effect of price promotion on motivation of repeating purchase.

AS T-statistic equaled to 4.17 which is significant, therefore, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed. It has been cleared that satisfaction has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, price promotion positively affects the motivation of repeating purchase, and this hypothesis is confirmed. Testing the fifth hypothesis: The product quality has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Null hypothesis: The product quality does not have a significant effect on satisfaction. Research hypothesis: The product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction (Table 10).

Table 10: Results of the fifth hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/23 3/37 Beta

T-statistic is used to study the effect of product quality on satisfaction. AS T-statistic equaled to 3.37 which is significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed.

It has been cleared that the product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, the product quality positively affects the satisfaction, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Testing the sixth hypothesis: The service quality has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Null hypothesis: The service quality does not have a significant effect on satisfaction. Research hypothesis: The service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction (Table 11).

Table 11: Results of the sixth hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/22 3/05 Beta

T statistic is used to study the effect of service quality on satisfaction. AS T-statistic equaled to 3.05 which is significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed.

It has been cleared that the service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, the service quality positively affects the satisfaction, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Testing the seventh hypothesis: Satisfaction has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Null hypothesis: Satisfaction does not have a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase.

Research hypothesis: Satisfaction has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase (Table 12).

Table 12: Results of the seventh hypothesis.

Hypothesis
Price promotion → Product quality
Result Standard coefficient T statistic Type of route
Significant positive effect 0/49 7/48 Beta

T-statistic is used to study the effect of satisfaction on motivation of repeating purchase. AS T-statistic equaled to 6.48 which is significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that this hypothesis is confirmed. It has been cleared that satisfaction has a significant effect on motivation of repeating purchase. On the other hand, the correlation between the variables is significant. According to the results of this hypothesis, satisfaction positively affects the motivation of repeating purchase, and this hypothesis is confirmed.

Results of Hypotheses

First hypothesis: the promotion price has a significant effect on product quality.

The second hypothesis: advance price has significant influence on service quality.

The third hypothesis: price promotion has a significant effect on satisfaction.

The fourth hypothesis: promote repeat purchase price has a significant effect on motivation.

Fifth hypothesis: product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction.

Sixth hypothesis: service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction.

The seventh hypothesis: satisfaction has a significant effect on repeat purchase incentives.

Analyzing hypotheses

First hypothesis: the price promotion has a significant effect on product quality. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The price promotion is characterized by significant effect on product quality. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of price promotion on product quality. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that price has a significant effect on the quality of the product.

Second hypothesis: the price promotion has a significant effect on service quality. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The price promotion is characterized by significant effect on service quality. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of price promotion on service quality. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that price has a significant effect on the quality of the service.

Third hypothesis: the price promotion has a significant effect on satisfaction. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The price promotion is characterized by significant effect on satisfaction. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of price promotion on service quality. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that price has a significant effect on satisfaction. The findings Matzler and colleagues [8] showed that five price (quality, price, reasonable pricing, price transparency, confidence in the price, and the price relative) strong impact on customer satisfaction price and thus affect his overall satisfaction. Kansogra confirmed that a fair price is positively related to customer satisfaction and a fair price both directly and indirectly through satisfaction loyalty is significant.

Third hypothesis: the price promotion has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant.

Third hypothesis: the price promotion has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that price has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives. Bowen and Shoemaker found that loyal customers when using services that ask about the price.

Fourth hypothesis: the product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The product quality is characterized by significant effect on satisfaction. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of product quality on satisfaction. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. The results Kaftzopolas and Somas showed that the financial performance affects the quality of their products.

Fourth hypothesis: the service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The service quality is characterized by significant effect on satisfaction. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of product quality on satisfaction. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction. The results of 7, Hapsari, et al. [9] suggest that perceived value mediating role between service quality and customer satisfaction plays a minor. Shin concluded that service quality has a significant impact on customer satisfaction.

Fourth hypothesis: the satisfaction has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives.

According to the statistic t, it can be concluded that the hypothesis is significant. The satisfaction is characterized by significant effect on repeating purchase incentives. The proposed route between the two variables is positive. Considering the results of this hypothesis, it has been cleared the significant positive impact of satisfaction on repeating purchase incentives. Since this result is consistent with the researcher's claim, the hypothesis is accepted. The result of this assumption is in line with the findings of the study by Huang and colleagues [3] who showed that satisfaction has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives. Ranjbarian, et al. [7] concluded that the customers' satisfaction affects repeating purchase. Shin concluded that customers' satisfaction affects repeating purchase [10-22].

Applied suggestions: 1 to 4 hypotheses, as price promotion is considered as the independent variable. Therefore, it is recommended:

1. It is recommended to present the gift goods or discounts for buying the goods.

2. It is recommended to present the discounts in special days. The customers' loyalty would be increased in this way.

3. It is recommended to present the discounts or gifts such as appliances for those who buy large volume of goods.

Fifth hypothesis: it is recommended to present the qualified products. The original or green products should be offered to make confidence the customers that their health is important for you [23-45].

It is recommended to consider the variety in goods that the customers could buy the desired products.

Sixth hypothesis: The service quality is considered as the important factor in achieving success. This issue is related to satisfaction. It can be said that satisfaction is an important index in marketing; the service quality is concerned by most of the researchers. Several studies indicate the positive correlation between the service quality and profitability and attracting customers.

The seventh hypothesis: You should ask the customers whether they are satisfied to present the new brand in store because in this way, you can present the qualified products. This leads to the customers' loyalty and repeating purchase.

It is recommended to decorate the store by new design, playing music, and beautiful flowers.

It is recommended to hire the polite customers to supply the products and services. The personnel’s should be asked to respect the customers [46-50].

Conclusion

In this study, the impact of price promotion on assessing the quality of customer and repeat purchase incentives in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj was studied. The following hypotheses are presented:

1) Price promotion has a significant effect on product quality in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

2) Price promotion has a significant effect on service quality in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

3) Price promotion has a significant effect on satisfaction in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

4) Price promotion has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives in Amiran Chain

Store in Karaj.

5) Product quality has a significant effect on satisfaction in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

6) Service quality has a significant effect on satisfaction in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

7) Satisfaction has a significant effect on repeating purchase incentives in Amiran Chain Store in Karaj.

At this stage, the researcher has tried to express conceptual models, theoretical framework by referring to books, articles, studies and surveys of users, research model. Sampling was done to determine the validity and reliability of the data collected. Data were analyzed, and the suggestions are presented.

References

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