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An Analytical Study of Consumer Buying Behavior Towards Fashion Apparels in Ludhiana

PAWAN KUMAR

Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India

KANCHAN

Government College Malerkotla, Punjab, India

*Corresponding Author:
PAWAN KUMAR
Mittal School of Business
Lovely Professional University
Phagwara, Punjab, India
Tel: +919417660571
Email: bhupeshmlk@gmail.com

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Abstract

Today, every nation in the globe has their smaller and specialized fashion industries that cater to specific national, regional, cultural, or religious markets. Most people in the world today wear according to “world fashion,” and very low-cost version of Western clothing, often a T-shirt with pants or a skirt on a mass scale. These industries operate in parallel with the global fashion industry on a minor and localized scale. This study is conducted to find perception of consumers towards branded apparel. We have taken 100 respondents from Ludhiana for filling questionnaire. We put appropriate Statistical tool for analyzing data.

Keywords

Fashion Industry; Consumers; Methodology; Globalization

INTRODUCTION

Today fashion industry is a rapidly growing industry in the world. The fashion industry in India currently is considered dynamic. For the last few decades the fashion industry in India is experiencing a boom due to increasing consciousness for fashion among Indians.

Increasing competition and Globalization, and short life cycles of cloths in fashion retailing, improve symmetric consumer behavior and set a number of marketing challenges for retail firms. To survive in this industry, it is necessary for manufacturers and retailers to develop effective marketing strategies. It has been noticed that the fashion apparel market has been extremely influenced by fashion trends in India.

Fashion apparel industry has become more diverse by fashion brands, personalization, advertisement and ethnicity in the global marketplace. If consumers’ preferences can identify by manufacturers and retailers of fashion apparel, they can be better able to attract and maintain their target consumer group. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the dimension of fashion apparel shopping among consumers. Though the various dimension that research subject of buying intentions has been widely covered in the literature, this study contributes to build the position of manufacturer and retailer in driving purchase intentions with factors like value and status, and price sensitivity and many more of brands among consumers in India.

The current urban middle and upper class Indian consumer buying behavior to a large extent has the Western influence especially amongst females. There is an increase in positive attitude towards the Western trends. The Indian consumer has become much more open-minded and experimental in his perspective. Foreign brands gain wide consumer acceptance in India. Fashion is a billion-dollar industry employing millions of people not only in emerging economies but across the globe. By this changing landscape consumers are affected to a large extent by theses swift changes.

The late 1980’s, few large retailers dominance the fashion industry, fashion industry has been experiencing major changes since last few decades. In the fast evolving fashion industry even the best plans and activities can be failed by economic change and the actions of competitors.

After the independence, changes occurred in Indian Fashion industry and dressing style of Indians by the effects of globalization, which led to the fusion of Indian and western dresses. Wearing Curtis on jeans, spaghetti with sarees are the examples showing the effect of western culture on Indian fashion industry. The work done by Indian designers is highly appreciated globally.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Susan Kaiser stated that the tendency toward both increased variety within geographic locations and a homogenizing effect across locations represents a global paradox. On the one hand, shopping malls in every city have the same stores and sell the same fashion items.

Dholakia [1] to describe shopping as a gendered activity can however be an oversimplification. Despite this fact, there are still some general differences between the female and male shopping behavior. A common stereotype about men and shopping is that men enter one store, buy what they need, and then quickly leave. Women see clothes as a mean for self-identity and status symbol, whereas men focus more on functional and financial benefits.

Caterall and MacLaran stated that the roles can be explained by the cultural understandings of what it means to be masculine or feminine.

Kotler [2] stated to satisfy the needs and wants of the target customer is the main objective of marketing. Consumer behavior is a subject that deals with the factors that affect the buying behavior of a consumer. It gives an idea that how consumer select, purchase and use product and service to satisfy their needs and desires.

Mintel reported in his study that 20-24 and 25-34 age groups are target to the marketers as women are less anxious about quality they prefer style in their clothing. In order to discuss about female or male shopping behavior some main aspects need to be clarified: The term sex is a genetic aspect referring to whether a person is physiologically a man or a woman. It refers to psychological, sociological and cultural behavior propensities of men and women.

Moss [3] stated in order to discuss female or male shopping behavior some main notions need to be clarified: The term sex is a biological concept referring to whether a person is physiologically a man or a woman. Gender is a social concept referring to psychologically, sociologically and culturally rooted behavioral tendencies of men and women.

Bhardwaj and Fairhurst stated that the perception of fashion varies among different generations. Younger people generally prefer a higher number of low quality, cheap and fashionable clothes, compared to the older generation which prefers to purchase a fewer number of higher quality clothes. The older consumers will see fashion as a waste since it means buying garments of low quality and then throwing away older clothes as soon as the new ones hang in the cupboard [4-8].

Helen McCormick and Charlotte Livett fashion retailers must adequately interlace hedonic leisure with realistic utilitarianism to provide a mutually-satisfying shopping experience.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The research objective of the study is:

1. To study the nature of Fashion industry and awareness of branded apparels among consumers in Punjab.

2. To study the perception of consumers towards branded apparels.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is the systematic investigation in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and use the existing knowledge in a new and creative way to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.

The study focuses on the consumers buying behavior in the fashion industry and the perception of consumers towards branded apparels. To study this deeply, author have planned a methodology.

The study is in Urban as well as rural area too. Study shall be focusing on different age groups. The respondents shall be 200 in no.

The questionnaire shall be prepared and presented to the subjects. The subjects shall be made aware about the importance of the study. The questions shall be explained to the subjects [9-12].

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In the proposed study is to investigate the factors effecting the buying decision making process. The scope of the proposed work will be confined to consumers between the ages of 24 to 40 y. The respondents will be requested to fill the questionnaire. The study is restricted to Punjab.

The limitations of this study are its size and the limited time that can be spent on it. The study can only consider limited aspects and analyze them to a certain degree of depth in this research. In regard to the sample size, the study will focus on an area limited to a market niche: the fashion industry.

Size of the Sample

The sample size has been restricted to 200 consumers keeping in mind the research objectives and constraints. The candidates will be in different proportions. from Chandigarh, Patiala, Ludhiana and Sangrur. The no of respondents are selected according to the fashion trend in these places [13-18].

Sampling Unit

For the study the sampling unit will consist of consumers from different age groups from Patiala, Ludhiana, Sangrur, and Chandigarh, State Punjab [19-25].

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The present research will use both primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected through a structured questionnaire that should be designed keeping in mind various parameters. Secondary data will be collected through books, research papers, journal, articles, newspapers, websites and other informative sources.

Analysis of Data

Appropriate statistical tools and techniques will be used for analyzing data to find objectives. The data will be processed and analyzed with the use of statistical techniques available. On the basis of the data analysis it will be interpreted in the form of findings and conclusions.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

In this part of the paper we will be analyzing the impact of various factors on consumer behavior towards their fashion apparel purchase. Data was collected among people of Ludhiana using a structured questionnaire based on their perception towards branded apparel [26,27].

After collecting data’s from the respondents it is analyzed through SPSS statistical tool with the help of relevant testing methods. Demo-graphic and Psycho-graphic of individuals were analyzed separately to find the exact impact on their purchase towards branded apparels. Following steps are approached in statistical analysis to find out the exact result.

Reliability Test

Step1: Reliability analysis is carried out as an initial step to find out the accuracy of the questionnaire framed towards the study and also the validity of the questionnaire set when a similar kind of study is carried out in future.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s alpha method is used to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire as well. This analysis includes all the dependent and independent variables in it. Since it is the consumer based study the standard value is taken as 0.7 and the derived output value is compared with it. Since the obtained value is higher than the standard value (0.931>0.7) it is considered as the test is reliable and it is valid too for carrying out in the future (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1: Cronbach's Alpha.

Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
0.931 56

Table 2: Demographic profile of a customer age.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups 0.056
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
  Between Groups 0.0391
I like to get involved in buying Within Groups  
  Total  

Age Factor

Consumer’s purchase intention towards apparels was compared with their demographic profile to analyze whether their purchase varies according to their demographic profile. Therefore demographic profile of a customer like age, gender, family income, family type, education and marital status are considered as independent variables and the factors influencing customer’s purchase intention is considered to be dependent variables.

Purchase intention factors like brand image, quality, price, advertisements, promotional scheme and store display were taken into consideration.

These variables were compared through ANOVA test. At the end of the analysis the obtained value is compared with standard value, since it is a consumer based study the standard value is taken as 0.05. Therefore it is concluded as the age factor plays a significant impact on their purchase intention towards fashion apparel products because the obtained value is lesser than the standard value. It shows that customers belongs to different age group has different purchase intentions.

Education

Education of a respondent is considered as a factor and compared with their purchase intention towards fashion apparels. As a result of ANOVA test the obtained values are compared with the standard value (0.05). Since the obtained values 0.811 and 0.249 are higher than the standard value it is concluded that education does not play an important role in their purchase decision of buying branded apparel (Table 3).

Table 3: Demographic profile of a customer Education.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups 0.811
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups 0.249
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Family Income

Family income is considered as a factor and compared with their purchase intention towards fashion apparels. As a result of ANOVA test the obtained values are compared with the standard value (0.05). Since the obtained values 0.001and 0.079 are lesser than the standard value it is concluded that family income does not play an important role in their purchase decision of buying branded apparel (Table 4).

Table 4: Demographic profile of a customer family income.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups 0.001
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups 0.079
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Family Type

Family type is considered as a factor and compared with their purchase intention towards fashion apparels. As a result of ANOVA test the obtained values are compared with the standard value (0.05). Since the obtained values 0.159 and 0.949 are higher than the standard value it is concluded that family type does not play an important role in their purchase decision of buying branded apparel (Table 5).

Table 5: Demographic profile of a customer Family type.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups .159
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups .949
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Gender

Gender factor of customers is considered here and compared with their purchase intention towards fashion apparels. As a result of ANOVA test the obtained values are compared with the standard value (0.05). Since the obtained values 0.816 and 0.989 are higher than the standard value it is concluded that gender does not play an important role in their purchase decision of buying branded apparel. Adding up to the conclusion people are attracted towards the fashion apparels irrespective of their gender (Table 6).

Table 6: Demographic profile of a customer Gender.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups .816
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups .989
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Marital Status

Marital status of customers is considered here and compared with their purchase intention towards fashion apparels. As a result of ANOVA test the obtained values are compared with the standard value (0.05). Since the obtained values 0.194 and 0.965 are higher than the standard value it is concluded that marital status of an individual does not play an important role in their purchase decision of buying branded apparel (Table 7).

Table 7: Demographic profile of a customer Marital Status.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups .194
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups .965
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Psychological Factors

Psychological factors of a Respondent as their taste towards different aspects like design, colour, price, style, branding etc. were compared with their preferences towards fashion apparels like brand image, quality, price, advertisements, promotional scheme and store display were taken into consideration. Here psychological factors of individual customers are taken as independent variable and brand preference towards purchase is considered as dependent variable. The analysis is carried out through ANOVA test (Table 8).

Table 8: Demographic profile of a customer Psychological Factors.

    Sig.
My social status influences me towards purchase of fashion apparel Total  
  Between Groups .002
I want to get noticed by people for buying expensive apparels Within Groups  
  Total  
I like to get involved in buying Between Groups .023
  Within Groups  
  Total  

Psychological factors like design, colour, price, style, branding, store set-up were compared with purchase intention of consumers towards branded apparels were analyzed. At the end of the analysis the standard value is compared with obtained output values (0.02 and 0.023). Since the obtained values are lesser than standard value 0.05 it is concluded that psychological factors have a significant impact on their purchase intention.

CONCLUSION

It is concluded that the consumers of Ludhiana district are more interested in buying fashion and branded apparels. Even they are restricted through some financial aspects like individual income still they are very much interested for Buying branded apparels and they are Usually Updated for new arrivals in fashion and brands. However they have less income but they want to look smart and up to date.

REFERENCES

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